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Muwatta Imam Malik

Blood-Money

كتاب العقول

وَحَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ أَنَّ الْعَاقِلَةَ لاَ تَحْمِلُ شَيْئًا مِنْ دِيَةِ الْعَمْدِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءُوا ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ وَحَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ‏.

Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab said, "Theprecedent of the sunna is that the tribe are not liable for any blood-money of an intentional killing unless they wish that." Yahyarelated to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said the same as that. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 1585
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 8


قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِنَّ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ قَالَ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ فِي قَتْلِ الْعَمْدِ حِينَ يَعْفُو أَوْلِيَاءُ الْمَقْتُولِ أَنَّ الدِّيَةَ تَكُونُ عَلَى الْقَاتِلِ فِي مَالِهِ خَاصَّةً إِلاَّ أَنْ تُعِينَهُ الْعَاقِلَةُ عَنْ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ مِنْهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الدِّيَةَ لاَ تَجِبُ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ الثُّلُثَ فَصَاعِدًا فَمَا بَلَغَ الثُّلُثَ فَهُوَ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ وَمَا كَانَ دُونَ الثُّلُثِ فَهُوَ فِي مَالِ الْجَارِحِ خَاصَّةً ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَنَا فِيمَنْ قُبِلَتْ مِنْهُ الدِّيَةُ فِي قَتْلِ الْعَمْدِ أَوْ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنَ الْجِرَاحِ الَّتِي فِيهَا الْقِصَاصُ أَنَّ عَقْلَ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَكُونُ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءُوا وَإِنَّمَا عَقْلُ ذَلِكَ فِي مَالِ الْقَاتِلِ أَوِ الْجَارِحِ خَاصَّةً إِنْ وُجِدَ لَهُ مَالٌ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ لَهُ مَالٌ كَانَ دَيْنًا عَلَيْهِ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشَاءُوا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ تَعْقِلُ الْعَاقِلَةُ أَحَدًا أَصَابَ نَفْسَهُ عَمْدًا أَوْ خَطَأً بِشَىْءٍ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ رَأْىُ أَهْلِ الْفِقْهِ عِنْدَنَا وَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَنَّ أَحَدًا ضَمَّنَ الْعَاقِلَةَ مِنْ دِيَةِ الْعَمْدِ شَيْئًا وَمِمَّا يُعْرَفُ بِهِ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ‏}‏ فَتَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ - فِيمَا نُرَى وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ - أَنَّهُ مَنْ أُعْطِيَ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الْعَقْلِ فَلْيَتْبَعْهُ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلْيُؤَدِّ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الصَّبِيِّ الَّذِي لاَ مَالَ لَهُ وَالْمَرْأَةِ الَّتِي لاَ مَالَ لَهَا إِذَا جَنَى أَحَدُهُمَا جِنَايَةً دُونَ الثُّلُثِ إِنَّهُ ضَامِنٌ عَلَى الصَّبِيِّ وَالْمَرْأَةِ فِي مَالِهِمَا خَاصَّةً إِنْ كَانَ لَهُمَا مَالٌ أُخِذَ مِنْهُ وَإِلاَّ فَجِنَايَةُ كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا دَيْنٌ عَلَيْهِ لَيْسَ عَلَى الْعَاقِلَةِ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ وَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ أَبُو الصَّبِيِّ بِعَقْلِ جِنَايَةِ الصَّبِيِّ وَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا قُتِلَ كَانَتْ فِيهِ الْقِيمَةُ يَوْمَ يُقْتَلُ وَلاَ تَحْمِلُ عَاقِلَةُ قَاتِلِهِ مِنْ قِيمَةِ الْعَبْدِ شَيْئًا قَلَّ أَوْ كَثُرَ وَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى الَّذِي أَصَابَهُ فِي مَالِهِ خَاصَّةً بَالِغًا مَا بَلَغَ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ قِيمَةُ الْعَبْدِ الدِّيَةَ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ فَذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ فِي مَالِهِ وَذَلِكَ لأَنَّ الْعَبْدَ سِلْعَةٌ مِنَ السِّلَعِ ‏.‏

Malik said that Ibn Shihab said, "The precedent of the sunna inthe intentional murder is that when the relatives of the murderedperson relinquish retaliation, the blood-money is owed by the murdererfrom his own property unless the tribe helps him with it willingly." Malik said, "What is done in our community is that the blood-money is not obliged against the tribe until it has reached a third ofthe full amount and upwards. Whatever reaches a third is against thetribe, and whatever is below a third, is against the property of theone who did the injury." Malik said, "The way of doing thingsabout which there is no dispute among us, in the case of someone whohas the blood-money accepted from him in intentional murder or in anyinjury in which there is retaliation, is that that blood-money is notdue from the tribe unless they wish it. The blood-money for that isfrom the property of the murderer or the injurer if he has property.If he does not have any property, it is a debt against him, and noneof it is owed by the tribe unless they wish." Malik said,"The tribe does not pay blood-money to anyone who injures himself,intentionally or accidentally. This is the opinion of the people offiqh in our community. I have not heard that anyone has made the tribeliable for any blood-money incurred by intentional acts. Part of whatis well-known of that is that Allah, the Blessed, and the Exalted,said in His Book, 'Whoever has something pardoned him by his brother,should follow it with what is accepted and pay it with good will'(Sura 2 ayat 178) The commentary on that - in our view - and Allahknows best, is that whoever gives his brother something of the blood-money, should follow it with what is accepted and pay him with goodwill." Malik spoke about a child who had no property and awoman who had no property. He said, "When one of them causes an injurybelow a third of the blood-money, it is taken on behalf of the childand woman from their personal property, if they have property fromwhich it may be taken. If not, the injury which each of them hascaused is a debt against them. The tribe does not have to pay any ofit and the father of a child is not liable for the blood-money of aninjury caused by the child and he is not responsible for it." Malik said, "The way of doing things in our community about whichthere is no dispute, is that when a slave is killed, the value for himis that of the day on which he was killed. The tribe of the murdereris not liable for any of the value of the slave, great or small. Thatis the responsibility of the one who struck him from his own personalproperty as far as it covers. If the value of the slave is the blood-money or more, that is against him in his property. That is becausethe slave is a certain type of goods." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 1587
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 8


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، نَشَدَ النَّاسَ بِمِنًى مَنْ كَانَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمٌ مِنَ الدِّيَةِ أَنْ يُخْبِرَنِي ‏.‏ فَقَامَ الضَّحَّاكُ بْنُ سُفْيَانَ الْكِلاَبِيُّ فَقَالَ كَتَبَ إِلَىَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ أُوَرِّثَ امْرَأَةَ أَشْيَمَ الضِّبَابِيِّ مِنْ دِيَةِ زَوْجِهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ ادْخُلِ الْخِبَاءَ حَتَّى آتِيَكَ فَلَمَّا نَزَلَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ أَخْبَرَهُ الضَّحَّاكُ فَقَضَى بِذَلِكَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ وَكَانَ قَتْلُ أَشْيَمَ خَطَأً ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Umar ibn al-Khattab demanded of the people at Mina, "If anyone has knowledge ofblood-money, let him inform me." Ad-Dahhak ibn Sufyan al-Kilabi stoodup and said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, wrote to me that the wife of Ashyam ad-Dibabi inheritedfrom the blood-money of her husband." Umar ibn al-Khattab said to him,"Go into the tent until I come to you." When Umar ibn al-Khattab camein, ad-Dahhak told him about it and Umar ibn al-Khattab gave adecision based on that. Ibn Shihab said, "The killing ofAshyam was accidental." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 1588
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 9


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنْ بَنِي مُدْلِجٍ - يُقَالُ لَهُ قَتَادَةُ - حَذَفَ ابْنَهُ بِالسَّيْفِ فَأَصَابَ سَاقَهُ فَنُزِيَ فِي جُرْحِهِ فَمَاتَ فَقَدِمَ سُرَاقَةُ بْنُ جُعْشُمٍ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ اعْدُدْ عَلَى مَاءِ قُدَيْدٍ عِشْرِينَ وَمِائَةَ بَعِيرٍ حَتَّى أَقْدَمَ عَلَيْكَ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ إِلَيْهِ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ أَخَذَ مِنْ تِلْكَ الإِبِلِ ثَلاَثِينَ حِقَّةً وَثَلاَثِينَ جَذَعَةً وَأَرْبَعِينَ خَلِفَةً ثُمَّ قَالَ أَيْنَ أَخُو الْمَقْتُولِ قَالَ هَا أَنَا ذَا ‏.‏ قَالَ خُذْهَا فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لَيْسَ لِقَاتِلٍ شَىْءٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said from Amr ibn Shuayb thata man of the Banu Mudlij called Qatada threw a sword at his son and itstruck his thigh. The wound bled profusely and he died. Suraqa ibnJusham came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and mentioned that to him Umar saidto him, "At the watering place of Qudayd count one hundred and twentycamels and wait until I come to you." When Umar ibn al-Khattab came tohim, he took thirty four-year-old camels, thirty five-year-old camels,and forty pregnant camels from them. Then he said, "Where is thebrother of the slain man?" He said, "Here." He said, "Take them. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,'The killer gets nothing.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 1589
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 10


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، سُئِلاَ أَتُغَلَّظُ الدِّيَةُ فِي الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ فَقَالاَ لاَ وَلَكِنْ يُزَادُ فِيهَا لِلْحُرْمَةِ ‏.‏ فَقِيلَ لِسَعِيدٍ هَلْ يُزَادُ فِي الْجِرَاحِ كَمَا يُزَادُ فِي النَّفْسِ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ أُرَاهُمَا أَرَادَا مِثْلَ الَّذِي صَنَعَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فِي عَقْلِ الْمُدْلِجِيِّ حِينَ أَصَابَ ابْنَهُ ‏.‏

Malik said that he had heardthat Said ibn al-Musayyab and Sulayman ibn Yasar were asked, "Does onedeal more harshly in taking the blood-money in the sacred month?" Theysaid, "No. But it is increased in it because of violating the month."It was said to Said, "Does one increase for the wound as one increasesfor the life?" He said, "Yes." Malik added, "I think thatthey meant the same as what Umar ibn al-Khattab did with respect tothe blood-money of the Mudliji when he struck his son." (i.e. giving120 camels instead of 100). Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 1590
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 10


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ - يُقَالُ لَهُ أُحَيْحَةُ بْنُ الْجُلاَحِ - كَانَ لَهُ عَمٌّ صَغِيرٌ هُوَ أَصْغَرُ مِنْ أُحَيْحَةَ وَكَانَ عِنْدَ أَخْوَالِهِ فَأَخَذَهُ أُحَيْحَةُ فَقَتَلَهُ فَقَالَ أَخْوَالُهُ كُنَّا أَهْلَ ثُمِّهِ وَرُمِّهِ حَتَّى إِذَا اسْتَوَى عَلَى عُمَمِهِ غَلَبَنَا حَقُّ امْرِئٍ فِي عَمِّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ عُرْوَةُ فَلِذَلِكَ لاَ يَرِثُ قَاتِلٌ مَنْ قَتَلَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ قَاتِلَ الْعَمْدِ لاَ يَرِثُ مِنْ دِيَةِ مَنْ قَتَلَ شَيْئًا وَلاَ مِنْ مَالِهِ وَلاَ يَحْجُبُ أَحَدًا وَقَعَ لَهُ مِيرَاثٌ وَأَنَّ الَّذِي يَقْتُلُ خَطَأً لاَ يَرِثُ مِنَ الدِّيَةِ شَيْئًا وَقَدِ اخْتُلِفَ فِي أَنْ يَرِثَ مِنْ مَالِهِ لأَنَّهُ لاَ يُتَّهَمُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ قَتَلَهُ لِيَرِثَهُ وَلِيَأْخُذَ مَالَهُ فَأَحَبُّ إِلَىَّ أَنْ يَرِثَ مِنْ مَالِهِ وَلاَ يَرِثُ مِنْ دِيَتِهِ ‏.‏

11 Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr that a man of the Ansar called Uhayha ibn al-Julah had a youngpaternal uncle who was younger than him and who was living with hismaternal uncles. Uhayha took him and killed him. His maternal unclessaid, "We brought him up from a baby to a youth till he stood firm onhis feet, and we have had the right of a man taken from us by hispaternal uncle." Urwa said, "For that reason a killer does not inheritfrom the one he killed." Malik said, "The way of doing thingsabout which there is no dispute is that the intentional murderer doesnot inherit anything of the blood-money of the person he has murderedor any of his property. He does not stop anyone who has a share ofinheritance from inheriting. The one who kills accidentally does notinherit anything of the blood-money and there is dispute as to whetheror not he inherits from the dead person's property because there is nosuspicion that he killed him for his inheritance and in order to takehis property. I prefer that he inherit from the dead person's propertyand not inherit from the blood-money." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 1591
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 43 Hadith no 11



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