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Muwatta Imam Malik

Divorce

كتاب الطلاق

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ آلَى مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وُقِفَ حَتَّى يُطَلِّقَ أَوْ يَفِيءَ وَلاَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ حَتَّى يُوقَفَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umarsaid, "When a man makes a vow to abstain from intercourse with hiswife and four months have passed he must declare his intent and eitherhe is divorced or he revokes his vow. Divorce does not occur untilfour months have passed and he continues to abstain." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1171
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 18


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، وَأَبَا، بَكْرِ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ كَانَا يَقُولاَنِ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ إِنَّهَا إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ فَهِيَ تَطْلِيقَةٌ وَلِزَوْجِهَا عَلَيْهَا الرَّجْعَةُ مَا كَانَتْ فِي الْعِدَّةِ ‏.‏

Yahyarelated to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Said al-Musayyab and AbuBakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman said about a man who made a vow to abstain fromintercourse with his wife, "If four months pass it is a divorce. Thehusband can go back to his wife as long as she is in her idda." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1172
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 18


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ، كَانَ يَقْضِي فِي الرَّجُلِ إِذَا آلَى مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ أَنَّهَا إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ فَهِيَ تَطْلِيقَةٌ وَلَهُ عَلَيْهَا الرَّجْعَةُ مَا دَامَتْ فِي عِدَّتِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ كَانَ رَأْىُ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَيُوقَفُ فَيُطَلِّقُ عِنْدَ انْقِضَاءِ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ ثُمَّ يُرَاجِعُ امْرَأَتَهُ أَنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا وَلاَ رَجْعَةَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ عُذْرٌ مِنْ مَرَضٍ أَوْ سِجْنٍ أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْعُذْرِ فَإِنَّ ارْتِجَاعَهُ إِيَّاهَا ثَابِتٌ عَلَيْهَا فَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا ثُمَّ تَزَوَّجَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يُصِبْهَا حَتَّى تَنْقَضِيَ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وَقَفَ أَيْضًا فَإِنْ لَمْ يَفِئْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ الطَّلاَقُ بِالإِيلاَءِ الأَوَّلِ إِذَا مَضَتِ الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا رَجْعَةٌ لأَنَّهُ نَكَحَهَا ثُمَّ طَلَّقَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمَسَّهَا فَلاَ عِدَّةَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا وَلاَ رَجْعَةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ فَيُوقَفُ بَعْدَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَيُطَلِّقُ ثُمَّ يَرْتَجِعُ وَلاَ يَمَسُّهَا فَتَنْقَضِي أَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا إِنَّهُ لاَ يُوقَفُ وَلاَ يَقَعُ عَلَيْهِ طَلاَقٌ وَإِنَّهُ إِنْ أَصَابَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَنْقَضِيَ عِدَّتُهَا كَانَ أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّتُهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُصِيبَهَا فَلاَ سَبِيلَ لَهُ إِلَيْهَا وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُولِي مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ ثُمَّ يُطَلِّقُهَا فَتَنْقَضِي الأَرْبَعَةُ الأَشْهُرِ قَبْلَ انْقِضَاءِ عِدَّةِ الطَّلاَقِ قَالَ هُمَا تَطْلِيقَتَانِ إِنْ هُوَ وُقِفَ وَلَمْ يَفِئْ وَإِنْ مَضَتْ عِدَّةُ الطَّلاَقِ قَبْلَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَلَيْسَ الإِيلاَءُ بِطَلاَقٍ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الأَرْبَعَةَ الأَشْهُرِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تُوقَفُ بَعْدَهَا مَضَتْ وَلَيْسَتْ لَهُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بِامْرَأَةٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ حَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَ امْرَأَتَهُ يَوْمًا أَوْ شَهْرًا ثُمَّ مَكَثَ حَتَّى يَنْقَضِيَ أَكْثَرُ مِنَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَلاَ يَكُونُ ذَلِكَ إِيلاَءً وَإِنَّمَا يُوقَفُ فِي الإِيلاَءِ مَنْ حَلَفَ عَلَى أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الأَرْبَعَةِ الأَشْهُرِ فَأَمَّا مَنْ حَلَفَ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَ امْرَأَتَهُ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ أَوْ أَدْنَى مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَلاَ أَرَى عَلَيْهِ إِيلاَءً لأَنَّهُ إِذَا دَخَلَ الأَجَلُ الَّذِي يُوقَفُ عِنْدَهُ خَرَجَ مِنْ يَمِينِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهِ وَقْفٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ حَلَفَ لاِمْرَأَتِهِ أَنْ لاَ يَطَأَهَا حَتَّى تَفْطِمَ وَلَدَهَا فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَكُونُ إِيلاَءً ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Marwan ibnal-Hakam decided about a man who had made a vow to abstain fromintercourse with his wife, that when four months had passed, it was adivorce and he could return to her as long as she was in her idda. Malik added, "That was also the opinion of Ibn Shihab." Malik said that if a man made a vow to abstain from intercoursewith his wife and at the end of four months he declared his intent tocontinue to abstain, he was divorced. He could go back to his wife,but if he did not have intercourse with her before the end of heridda, he had no access to her and he could not go back to her unlesshe had an excuse - illness, imprisonment, or a similar excuse. Hisreturn to her maintained her as his wife. If her idda passed and thenhe married her after that and did not have intercourse with her untilfour months had passed and he declared his intent to continue toabstain, divorce was applied to him by the first vow. If four monthspassed, and he had not returned to her, he had no idda against her noraccess because he had married her and then divorced her beforetouching her. Malik said that a man who made a vow to abstainfrom intercourse with his wife and continued to abstain after fourmonths and so divorced her, but then returned and did not touch herand four months were completed before her idda was completed, did nothave to declare his intent and divorce did not befall him. If he hadintercourse with her before the end of her idda, he was entitled toher. If her idda passed before he had intercourse with her, he had noaccess to her. This is what Malik preferred of what he had heard onthe subject. Malik said that if a man made a vow to abstainfrom intercourse with his wife and then divorced her, and the fourmonths of the vow were completed before completion of the idda of thedivorce, it counted as two pronouncements of divorce. If he declaredhis intention to continue to abstain and the idda of the divorcefinished before the four months the vow of abstention was not adivorce. That was because the four months had passed and she was nothis on that day. Malik said, "If someone makes a vow not tohave intercourse with his wife for a day or a month and then waitsuntil more than four months have passed, it is not ila. Ila onlyapplies to someone who vows more than four months. As for the one whovows not to have intercourse with his wife for four months or lessthan that, I do not think that it is ila because when the term entersinto it at which it stops, he comes out of his oath and he does nothave to declare his intention." Malik said, "If someone vowsto his wife not to have intercourse with her until her child has beenweaned, that is not ila. I have heard that Ali ibn Abi Talib was askedabout that and he did not think that it was ila." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1173
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 19


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ عَنْ إِيلاَءِ الْعَبْدِ، فَقَالَ هُوَ نَحْوُ إِيلاَءِ الْحُرِّ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِ وَاجِبٌ وَإِيلاَءُ الْعَبْدِ شَهْرَانِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had asked Ibn Shihab aboutthe ila of the slave. He said that it was like the ila of the freeman, and it put an obligation on him. The ila of the slave was twomonths. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1175
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 19


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ سُلَيْمٍ الزُّرَقِيِّ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، طَلَّقَ امْرَأَةً إِنْ هُوَ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَقَالَ الْقَاسِمُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّ رَجُلاً جَعَلَ امْرَأَةً عَلَيْهِ كَظَهْرِ أُمِّهِ إِنْ هُوَ تَزَوَّجَهَا فَأَمَرَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ إِنْ هُوَ تَزَوَّجَهَا أَنْ لاَ يَقْرَبَهَا حَتَّى يُكَفِّرَ كَفَّارَةَ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Said ibn Amr ibn Sulaym az-Zuraqi that he asked al-Qasim ibn Muhammad about a man who madedivorce conditional on his marrying a woman i.e. if he married her hewould automatically divorce her. Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad said, "If a manmarries a woman whom he has made as his mother's back, i.e. has madeharam for him, Umar ibn al-Khattab ordered him not to go near her ifhe married her until he had done the kaffara for pronouncing dhihar." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1176
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 20


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلاً، سَأَلَ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ تَظَاهَرَ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَنْكِحَهَا فَقَالاَ إِنْ نَكَحَهَا فَلاَ يَمَسَّهَا حَتَّى يُكَفِّرَ كَفَّارَةَ الْمُتَظَاهِرِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that a man askedal-Qasim ibn Muhammad and Sulayman ibn Yasar about a man whopronounced dhihar from his wife before he had married her. They said,"If he marries her, he must not touch her until he has done thekaffara for pronouncing dhihar." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1177
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 21



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