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Muwatta Imam Malik

Divorce

كتاب الطلاق

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ سَهْلَ بْنَ سَعْدٍ السَّاعِدِيَّ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عُوَيْمِرًا الْعَجْلاَنِيَّ جَاءَ إِلَى عَاصِمِ بْنِ عَدِيٍّ الأَنْصَارِيِّ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا عَاصِمُ أَرَأَيْتَ رَجُلاً وَجَدَ مَعَ امْرَأَتِهِ رَجُلاً أَيَقْتُلُهُ فَتَقْتُلُونَهُ أَمْ كَيْفَ يَفْعَلُ سَلْ لِي يَا عَاصِمُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَسَأَلَ عَاصِمٌ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَكَرِهَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَسَائِلَ وَعَابَهَا حَتَّى كَبُرَ عَلَى عَاصِمٍ مَا سَمِعَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَلَمَّا رَجَعَ عَاصِمٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ جَاءَهُ عُوَيْمِرٌ فَقَالَ يَا عَاصِمُ مَاذَا قَالَ لَكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ عَاصِمٌ لِعُوَيْمِرٍ لَمْ تَأْتِنِي بِخَيْرٍ قَدْ كَرِهَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَسْأَلَةَ الَّتِي سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُوَيْمِرٌ وَاللَّهِ لاَ أَنْتَهِي حَتَّى أَسْأَلَهُ عَنْهَا ‏.‏ فَأَقْبَلَ عُوَيْمِرٌ حَتَّى أَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَسْطَ النَّاسِ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ رَجُلاً وَجَدَ مَعَ امْرَأَتِهِ رَجُلاً أَيَقْتُلُهُ فَتَقْتُلُونَهُ أَمْ كَيْفَ يَفْعَلُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ قَدْ أُنْزِلَ فِيكَ وَفِي صَاحِبَتِكَ فَاذْهَبْ فَأْتِ بِهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ سَهْلٌ فَتَلاَعَنَا وَأَنَا مَعَ النَّاسِ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَلَمَّا فَرَغَا مِنْ تَلاَعُنِهِمَا قَالَ عُوَيْمِرٌ كَذَبْتُ عَلَيْهَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَمْسَكْتُهَا ‏.‏ فَطَلَّقَهَا ثَلاَثًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَأْمُرَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ قَالَ ابْنُ شِهَابٍ فَكَانَتْ تِلْكَ بَعْدُ سُنَّةَ الْمُتَلاَعِنَيْنِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Sahl ibn Sadas-Saidi told him that Uwaymir al-Ajlani came to Asim ibn Adi al-Ansari and said to him, "Asim! What do you think a man who findsanother man with his wife should do? Should he kill him and then bekilled himself, or what should .he do? Asim! ask the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about that for me."Asim asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, about it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, was revolted by the questions and reproved them until whathe heard from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace. was intolerable for Asim. When Asim returned to his people,Uwaymir came to him and said, " Asim! what did the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say to you?" Asim said toUwaymir, "You didn't bring me any good. The Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, was revolted by the questionwhich I asked him." Uwaymir said, "By Allah! I will not stop until Iask him about it!" Uwaymir stood up and went to the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in the middle of thepeople and said, "Messenger of Allah! What do you think a man whofinds another man with his wife should do? Should he kill him and thenbe killed himself, or what should he do?" The Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Something has been sentdown about you and your wife, so go and bring her." Sahlcontinued, "They mutually cursed one another in the presence of theMessenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and I was presentwith the people. When they finished cursing each other, Uwaymir said,'I shall have lied about her, Messenger of Allah, if I keep her,' andpronounced the divorce three times before the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, ordered him to do it." Malik said that Ibn Shihab said, "That was how the sunna of a couplemutually cursing each other was established (lian)." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1191
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 34


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، لاَعَنَ امْرَأَتَهُ فِي زَمَانِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَانْتَفَلَ مِنْ وَلَدِهَا فَفَرَّقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَيْنَهُمَا وَأَلْحَقَ الْوَلَدَ بِالْمَرْأَةِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafic from Abdullah ibn Umarthat a man cursed his wife in the time of the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, and disowned her child. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, separatedthem and gave the child to the woman. Malik said, "Allah theBlessed, the Exalted, said, 'The testimony of men who accuse theirwives but do not have any witnesses except themselves is to testify byAllah four times that he is being truthful, and a fifth time, that thecurse of Allah will be upon him, if he should be a liar. She willavoid punishment if she testifies by Allah four times that he is aliar, and a fifth time, that the wrath of Allah shall be upon her, ifhe should be telling the truth. ' "(Sura 24 ayat 6). Maliksaid, "The sunna with us is that those who curse each other are neverto be remarried. If the man calls himself a liar, (i.e. takes back hisaccusation), he is flogged with the hadd-punishment, and the child isgiven to him, and his wife can never return to him. There is no doubtor dispute about this sunna among us. " Malik said, "If a manseparates from his wife by an irrevocable divorce by which he cannotreturn to her, and then he denies the paternity of the child she iscarrying, whilst she claims that he is the father, and it is possibleby the timing, that he be so, he must curse her, and the child is notrecognised as his." Malik said, "That is what is done amongus, and it is what I have heard from the people of knowledge." Malik said that a man who accused his wife after he had divorcedher trebly while she was pregnant, and he had at first accepted beingthe father but then claimed that he had seen her committing adulterybefore he separated from her, was flogged with the hadd-punishment,and did not curse her. If he denied the paternity of herchild after he had divorced her trebly, and he had not previouslyaccepted it, then he cursed her. Malik said, "This is what Ihave heard." Malik said, "The slave is in the same positionas the free man as regards making accusations and invoking mutualcurses (lian). He acts in the lian as the free man acts although thereis no hadd applied for slandering a female-slave." Maliksaid, "The muslim slave-girl and the christian and jewish free womanalso do lian when a free muslim marries one of them and hasintercourse with her. That is because Allah - may He be blessed andExalted, said in His Book, 'As for those who accuse their wives,' andthey are their wives. This is what is done among us. Maliksaid that a man who did the lian with his wife, and then stopped andcalled himself a liar after one or two oaths and he had not cursedhimself in the fifth one, had to be flogged with the hadd-punishment,but they did not have to be separated. Malik said that if aman divorced his wife and then after three months the woman said, "Iam pregnant," and he denied paternity, then he had to do lian. Malik said that the husband of a female slave who pronounced thelian on her and then bought her, was not to have intercourse with her,even if he owned her. The sunna which had been handed down about acouple who mutually cursed each other in the lian was that they werenever to return to each other. Malik said that when a manpronounced the lian against his wife before he had consummated themarriage, she only had half of the bride price. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1192
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 35


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي وَلَدِ الْمُلاَعَنَةِ وَوَلَدِ الزِّنَا أَنَّهُ إِذَا مَاتَ وَرِثَتْهُ أُمُّهُ حَقَّهَا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَإِخْوَتُهُ لأُمِّهِ حُقُوقَهُمْ وَيَرِثُ الْبَقِيَّةَ مَوَالِي أُمِّهِ إِنْ كَانَتْ مَوْلاَةً وَإِنْ كَانَتْ عَرَبِيَّةً وَرِثَتْ حَقَّهَا وَوَرِثَ إِخْوَتُهُ لأُمِّهِ حُقُوقَهُمْ وَكَانَ مَا بَقِيَ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَبَلَغَنِي عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ أَدْرَكْتُ أَهْلَ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا ‏.

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that `Urwa ibn az-Zubayr said that if the child of the woman against whom li`an had beenpronounced or the child of fornication, died, his mother inheritedfrom him her right in the Book of Allah the Exalted, and his maternalhalf-brothers had their rights. The rest was inherited by the ownersof his mother's wala' if she was a freed slave. If she was an ordinaryfree woman, she inherited her right, his maternal brothers inheritedtheir rights, and the rest went to the Muslims. Malik said,"Iheard the same as that from Sulayman ibn Yasar, and it is what I sawthe people of knowledge in our city doing." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1193
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 36


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ ثَوْبَانَ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِيَاسِ بْنِ الْبُكَيْرِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ طَلَّقَ رَجُلٌ امْرَأَتَهُ ثَلاَثًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ بِهَا ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُ أَنْ يَنْكِحَهَا فَجَاءَ يَسْتَفْتِي فَذَهَبْتُ مَعَهُ أَسْأَلُ لَهُ فَسَأَلَ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالاَ لاَ نَرَى أَنْ تَنْكِحَهَا حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنَّمَا طَلاَقِي إِيَّاهَا وَاحِدَةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ إِنَّكَ أَرْسَلْتَ مِنْ يَدِكَ مَا كَانَ لَكَ مِنْ فَضْلٍ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Muhammad ibnAbd ar-Rahman ibn Thawban that Muhammad ibn Iyas ibn al-Bukayr said,"A man divorced his wife three times before he had consummated themarriage, and then it seemed good to him to marry her. Therefore, hewanted an opinion, and I went with him to ask Abdullah ibn Abbas andAbu Hurayra on his behalf about it, and they said, 'We do not thinkthat you should marry her until she has married another husband.' Heprotested that his divorcing her had been only once. Ibn Abbas said,'You threw away what you had of blessing.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1195
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 37


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الأَشَجِّ، عَنِ النُّعْمَانِ بْنِ أَبِي عَيَّاشٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ يَسْأَلُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ عَنْ رَجُلٍ طَلَّقَ امْرَأَتَهُ ثَلاَثًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمَسَّهَا قَالَ عَطَاءٌ فَقُلْتُ إِنَّمَا طَلاَقُ الْبِكْرِ وَاحِدَةٌ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لِي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ قَاصٌّ الْوَاحِدَةُ تُبِينُهَا وَالثَّلاَثَةُ تُحَرِّمُهَا حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Bukayribn Abdullah al-Ashajj from an-Numan ibn Abi Ayyash al Ansari from Ataibn Yasar that a man came and asked Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-As about aman who divorced his wife three times before he had had intercoursewith her Ata said, "The divorce of the virgin is one. Abdullah ibn Amribn al-As said to me, 'You say one pronouncement separates her andthree makes her haram until she has married another husband.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1196
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 38


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ بُكَيْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الأَشَجِّ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَيَّاشٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ جَالِسًا مَعَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ وَعَاصِمِ بْنِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ قَالَ فَجَاءَهُمَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِيَاسِ بْنِ الْبُكَيْرِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَجُلاً مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَادِيَةِ طَلَّقَ امْرَأَتَهُ ثَلاَثًا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ بِهَا فَمَاذَا تَرَيَانِ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ إِنَّ هَذَا الأَمْرَ مَا لَنَا فِيهِ قَوْلٌ فَاذْهَبْ إِلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ فَإِنِّي تَرَكْتُهُمَا عِنْدَ عَائِشَةَ فَسَلْهُمَا ثُمَّ ائْتِنَا فَأَخْبِرْنَا ‏.‏ فَذَهَبَ فَسَأَلَهُمَا فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ لأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَفْتِهِ يَا أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ فَقَدْ جَاءَتْكَ مُعْضِلَةٌ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ الْوَاحِدَةُ تُبِينُهَا وَالثَّلاَثَةُ تُحَرِّمُهَا حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا وَالثَّيِّبُ إِذَا مَلَكَهَا الرَّجُلُ فَلَمْ يَدْخُلْ بِهَا إِنَّهَا تَجْرِي مَجْرَى الْبِكْرِ الْوَاحِدَةُ تُبِينُهَا وَالثَّلاَثُ تُحَرِّمُهَا حَتَّى تَنْكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Bukayribn Abdullah al-Ashajj informed him that Muawiya ibn Abi Ayyash al-Ansari told him that he was sitting with Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr andAsim ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab when Muhammad ibn Iyas ibn al-Bukayr cameup to them and said, "A man from the desert has divorced his wifethree times before consummating the marriage, what do you think?"Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr said "This is something about which we have nostatement. Go to Abdullah ibn Abbas and Abu Hurayra. I left them withA'isha. Ask them and then come and tell us." He went and asked them.Ibn Abbas said to Abu Hurayra, "Give an opinion, Abu Hurayra! Adifficult one has come to you." Abu Hurayra said, "One pronouncementseparates her and three makes her haram until she has married anotherhusband." Ibn Abbas said the like of that. Malik said, "Thatis what is done among us, and when a man marries a woman who has beenmarried before, and he has not had intercourse with her, she istreated as a virgin - one pronouncement separates her and three makeher haram until she has married another husband." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 1197
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 29 Hadith no 38



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