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Muwatta Imam Malik

Fara'id

كتاب الفرائض

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي حَكِيمٍ، أَنَّ نَصْرَانِيًّا، أَعْتَقَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ هَلَكَ - قَالَ إِسْمَاعِيلُ - فَأَمَرَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ أَنْ أَجْعَلَ مَالَهُ فِي بَيْتِ الْمَالِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said from Ismailibn Abi Hakim that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz freed a christian who thendied. Ismail said, ''Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz ordered me to put hisproperty in the bayt al-mal." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1089
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 13


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ الثِّقَةِ، عِنْدَهُ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، يَقُولُ أَبَى عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ أَنْ يُوَرِّثَ، أَحَدًا مِنَ الأَعَاجِمِ إِلاَّ أَحَدًا وُلِدَ فِي الْعَرَبِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنْ جَاءَتِ امْرَأَةٌ حَامِلٌ مِنْ أَرْضِ الْعَدُوِّ فَوَضَعَتْهُ فِي أَرْضِ الْعَرَبِ فَهُوَ وَلَدُهَا يَرِثُهَا إِنْ مَاتَتْ وَتَرِثُهُ إِنْ مَاتَ مِيرَاثَهَا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا وَالسُّنَّةُ الَّتِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهَا وَالَّذِي أَدْرَكْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَهْلَ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا أَنَّهُ لاَ يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ بِقَرَابَةٍ وَلاَ وَلاَءٍ وَلاَ رَحِمٍ وَلاَ يَحْجُبُ أَحَدًا عَنْ مِيرَاثِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ كُلُّ مَنْ لاَ يَرِثُ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ دُونَهُ وَارِثٌ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَحْجُبُ أَحَدًا عَنْ مِيرَاثِهِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from a reliable source of his whohad heard Said ibn al-Musayyab say, ''Umar ibn al-Khattab refused tolet anyone inherit from the non-arabs except for one who was bornamong the arabs." Malik said, "If a pregnant woman comes fromthe land of the enemy and gives birth in arab land so that he is her(an arab) child, he inherits from her if she dies, and she inheritsfrom him if he dies, by the Book of Allah." Malik said, "Thegenerally agreed on way of doing things among us and the sunna inwhich there is no dispute, and what I saw the people of knowledge inour city doing, is that a Muslim does not inherit from a kafir bykinship, clientage (wala'), or maternal relationship, nor does he (theMuslim) overshadow any (of the kafirs) from his inheritance. Malik said, "Similarly, someone who forgoes his inheritance when he isthe chief heir does not overshadow anyone from his inheritance." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1090
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 14


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ غَيْرِ، وَاحِدٍ، مِنْ عُلَمَائِهِمْ ‏.‏ أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَتَوَارَثْ مَنْ قُتِلَ يَوْمَ الْجَمَلِ وَيَوْمَ صِفِّينَ وَيَوْمَ الْحَرَّةِ ثُمَّ كَانَ يَوْمَ قُدَيْدٍ فَلَمْ يُوَرَّثْ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ شَيْئًا إِلاَّ مَنْ عُلِمَ أَنَّهُ قُتِلَ قَبْلَ صَاحِبِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ وَلاَ شَكَّ عِنْدَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا وَكَذَلِكَ الْعَمَلُ فِي كُلِّ مُتَوَارِثَيْنِ هَلَكَا بِغَرَقٍ أَوْ قَتْلٍ أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ إِذَا لَمْ يُعْلَمْ أَيُّهُمَا مَاتَ قَبْلَ صَاحِبِهِ لَمْ يَرِثْ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ شَيْئًا وَكَانَ مِيرَاثُهُمَا لِمَنْ بَقِيَ مِنْ وَرَثَتِهِمَا يَرِثُ كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا وَرَثَتُهُ مِنَ الأَحْيَاءِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَرِثَ أَحَدٌ أَحَدًا بِالشَّكِّ وَلاَ يَرِثُ أَحَدٌ أَحَدًا إِلاَّ بِالْيَقِينِ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ يَهْلِكُ هُوَ وَمَوْلاَهُ الَّذِي أَعْتَقَهُ أَبُوهُ فَيَقُولُ بَنُو الرَّجُلِ الْعَرَبِيِّ قَدْ وَرِثَهُ أَبُونَا فَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ أَنْ يَرِثُوهُ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلاَ شَهَادَةٍ إِنَّهُ مَاتَ قَبْلَهُ وَإِنَّمَا يَرِثُهُ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِهِ مِنَ الأَحْيَاءِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا الأَخَوَانِ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ يَمُوتَانِ وَلأَحَدِهِمَا وَلَدٌ وَالآخَرُ لاَ وَلَدَ لَهُ وَلَهُمَا أَخٌ لأَبِيهِمَا فَلاَ يُعْلَمُ أَيُّهُمَا مَاتَ قَبْلَ صَاحِبِهِ فَمِيرَاثُ الَّذِي لاَ وَلَدَ لَهُ لأَخِيهِ لأَبِيهِ وَلَيْسَ لِبَنِي أَخِيهِ لأَبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ شَىْءٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِنْ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا أَنْ تَهْلَكَ الْعَمَّةُ وَابْنُ أَخِيهَا أَوِ ابْنَةُ الأَخِ وَعَمُّهَا فَلاَ يُعْلَمُ أَيُّهُمَا مَاتَ قَبْلُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُعْلَمْ أَيُّهُمَا مَاتَ قَبْلُ لَمْ يَرِثِ الْعَمُّ مِنِ ابْنَةِ أَخِيهِ شَيْئًا وَلاَ يَرِثُ ابْنُ الأَخِ مِنْ عَمَّتِهِ شَيْئًا ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahmanfrom more than one of the people of knowledge of that time, that thosewho were killed on the Day of the Camel, the Day of Siffin, the Day ofal-Harra, and the Day of Qudayd did not inherit from each other. Noneof them inherited anything from his companion unless it was known thathe had been killed before his companion. Malik said, "That isthe way of doing things about which there is no dispute, and whichnone of the people of knowledge in our city doubt. The procedure withtwo mutual heirs who are drowned, or killed in another way, when it isnot known which of them died first is the same - neither of theminherits anything from his companion. Their inheritance goes towhoever remains of their heirs. They are inherited from by theliving." Malik said, "No one should inherit from anyone elsewhen there is doubt, and one should only inherit from the other whenthere is certainty of knowledge and witnesses. That is because a manand his mawla whom his father has freed might die at the same time.The sons of the free man could say, 'Our father inherited from themawla.' They should not inherit from the mawla without knowledge ortestimony that he died first. The living people most entitled to hiswala' inherit from him." Malik said, "Another example is twofull brothers who die. One of them has children and the other doesnot. They have a half-brother by their father. It is not known whichof them died first, so the inheritance of the childless one goes tohis half-brother by the father. The children of the full-brother getnothing." Malik said, "Another example is when a paternalaunt and the son of her brother die, or else the daughter of thebrother and her paternal uncle. It is not known which of them diedfirst. The paternal uncle does not inherit anything from the daughterof his brother, and the son of the brother does not inherit anythingfrom his paternal aunt." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1091
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 15


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، كَانَ يَقُولُ فِي وَلَدِ الْمُلاَعَنَةِ وَوَلَدِ الزِّنَا إِنَّهُ إِذَا مَاتَ وَرِثَتْهُ أُمُّهُ حَقَّهَا فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِخْوَتُهُ لأُمِّهِ حُقُوقَهُمْ وَيَرِثُ الْبَقِيَّةَ مَوَالِي أُمِّهِ إِنْ كَانَتْ مَوْلاَةً وَإِنْ كَانَتْ عَرَبِيَّةً وَرِثَتْ حَقَّهَا وَوَرِثَ إِخْوَتُهُ لأُمِّهِ حُقُوقَهُمْ وَكَانَ مَا بَقِيَ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَبَلَغَنِي عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ أَدْرَكْتُ أَهْلَ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا ‏.

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Urwa ibnaz-Zubayr said about the child of lian and the child of fornication,that if they died, the mother inherited her right from them accordingto the Book of Allah, the Mighty, the Majestic! The siblings by themother had their rights. The rest was inherited by the former mastersof the mother if she was a freed slave. If she was a free woman byorigin, she inherited her due and the siblings by the mother inheritedtheir due, and the rest went to the Muslims. Malik said, "Iheard the same as that from Sulayman ibn Yasar." Malik said,"That is what I saw the people of knowledge in our city doing." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1092
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 16



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