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Muwatta Imam Malik

Wills and Testaments

كتاب الوصية

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ مَا حَقُّ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ لَهُ شَىْءٌ يُوصَى فِيهِ يَبِيتُ لَيْلَتَيْنِ إِلاَّ وَوَصِيَّتُهُ عِنْدَهُ مَكْتُوبَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Itis the duty of a muslim man who has something to be given as a bequestnot to spend two nights without writing a will about it." Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things in ourcommunity is that when the testator writes something in health orillness as a bequest, and it has freeing slaves or things other thanthat in it, he can alter it in any way he chooses, until he is on hisdeathbed. If he prefers to abandon a bequest or change it, he can doso unless he has made a slave mudabbar (to be freed after his death).If he has made him mudabbar, there is no way to change what he hasmade mudabbar. He is allowed to change his testament because theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Itis the duty of a muslim man who has something to be given as a bequestnot to spend two nights without writing a will about it." Malik explained, "Had the testator not been able to change his willnor what was mentioned in it about freeing slaves, each testator mightwithhold making bequests from his property, whether in freeing slavesor other than it. A man gives a bequest in his health and in histravelling." (i.e. he does not wait till his death bed ) . Malik summed up, "The way of doing things in our community about whichthere is no dispute is that he can change whatever he likes of thatexcept for the mudabbar." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1458
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ حَزْمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عَمْرَو بْنَ سُلَيْمٍ الزُّرَقِيَّ، أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّهُ، قِيلَ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ إِنَّ هَا هُنَا غُلاَمًا يَفَاعًا لَمْ يَحْتَلِمْ مِنْ غَسَّانَ وَوَارِثُهُ بِالشَّامِ وَهُوَ ذُو مَالٍ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ هَا هُنَا إِلاَّ ابْنَةُ عَمٍّ لَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ فَلْيُوصِ لَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَوْصَى لَهَا بِمَالٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ بِئْرُ جُشَمٍ قَالَ عَمْرُو بْنُ سُلَيْمٍ فَبِيعَ ذَلِكَ الْمَالُ بِثَلاَثِينَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ وَابْنَةُ عَمِّهِ الَّتِي أَوْصَى لَهَا هِيَ أُمُّ عَمْرِو بْنِ سُلَيْمٍ الزُّرَقِيِّ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm that Amribn Sulaym az-Zuraqi informed his father that it had been said to Umaribn al-Khattab, "There is here an adolescent boy who has not yetreached puberty. He is from the Ghassan tribe and his heir is in ash-Sham. He has property. Here he only has the daughter of one of hispaternal uncles." Umar ibn al-Khattab instructed, "Let him leave her abequest." He willed her a property called the well of Jusham. Malik added, "That property was sold for 30,000 dirhams, and thedaughter of the paternal uncle to whom he willed it was the mother ofAmr ibn Sulaym az-Zuraqi." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1459
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 2


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ حَزْمٍ، أَنَّ غُلاَمًا، مِنْ غَسَّانَ حَضَرَتْهُ الْوَفَاةُ بِالْمَدِينَةِ وَوَارِثُهُ بِالشَّامِ فَذُكِرَ ذَلِكَ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ إِنَّ فُلاَنًا يَمُوتُ أَفَيُوصِي قَالَ فَلْيُوصِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَكَانَ الْغُلاَمُ ابْنَ عَشْرِ سِنِينَ أَوِ اثْنَتَىْ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً ‏.‏ قَالَ فَأَوْصَى بِبِئْرِ جُشَمٍ فَبَاعَهَا أَهْلُهَا بِثَلاَثِينَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى سَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الضَّعِيفَ فِي عَقْلِهِ وَالسَّفِيهَ وَالْمُصَابَ الَّذِي يُفِيقُ أَحْيَانًا تَجُوزُ وَصَايَاهُمْ إِذَا كَانَ مَعَهُمْ مِنْ عُقُولِهِمْ مَا يَعْرِفُونَ مَا يُوصُونَ بِهِ فَأَمَّا مَنْ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ مِنْ عَقْلِهِ مَا يَعْرِفُ بِذَلِكَ مَا يُوصِي بِهِ وَكَانَ مَغْلُوبًا عَلَى عَقْلِهِ فَلاَ وَصِيَّةَ لَهُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said from Abu Bakr ibn Hazmthat a boy from Ghassan was dying in Madina while his heir was inSyria. That was mentioned to Umar ibn al-Khattab. It was said to him,"So-and-so is dying. Shall he make a bequest?" He said, "Let him makea bequest." Yahya ibn Said said that Abu Bakr had said, "Hewas a boy of ten or twelve years." Yahya said, "He willed the well ofJusham, and his people sold it for 30,000 dirhams." Yahyasaid that he heard Malik say, "The generally agreed-on way of doingthings in our community is that a simpleton, an idiot, or a lunaticwho recovers at times, can make wills if they have enough of theirwits about them to recognise what they will. Someone who has notenough wits to recognise what he wills, and is overcome in hisintellect, cannot make a bequest." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1460
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 3


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عَامِرِ بْنِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أَبِي وَقَّاصٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ جَاءَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَعُودُنِي عَامَ حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ مِنْ وَجَعٍ اشْتَدَّ بِي فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَدْ بَلَغَ بِي مِنَ الْوَجَعِ مَا تَرَى وَأَنَا ذُو مَالٍ وَلاَ يَرِثُنِي إِلاَّ ابْنَةٌ لِي أَفَأَتَصَدَّقُ بِثُلُثَىْ مَالِي قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ لاَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ فَالشَّطْرُ قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ الثُّلُثُ وَالثُّلُثُ كَثِيرٌ إِنَّكَ أَنْ تَذَرَ وَرَثَتَكَ أَغْنِيَاءَ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَنْ تَذَرَهُمْ عَالَةً يَتَكَفَّفُونَ النَّاسَ وَإِنَّكَ لَنْ تُنْفِقَ نَفَقَةً تَبْتَغِي بِهَا وَجْهَ اللَّهِ إِلاَّ أُجِرْتَ حَتَّى مَا تَجْعَلُ فِي فِي امْرَأَتِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَأُخَلَّفُ بَعْدَ أَصْحَابِي فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنَّكَ لَنْ تُخَلَّفَ فَتَعْمَلَ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا إِلاَّ ازْدَدْتَ بِهِ دَرَجَةً وَرِفْعَةً وَلَعَلَّكَ أَنْ تُخَلَّفَ حَتَّى يَنْتَفِعَ بِكَ أَقْوَامٌ وَيُضَرَّ بِكَ آخَرُونَ اللَّهُمَّ أَمْضِ لأَصْحَابِي هِجْرَتَهُمْ وَلاَ تَرُدَّهُمْ عَلَى أَعْقَابِهِمْ لَكِنِ الْبَائِسُ سَعْدُ ابْنُ خَوْلَةَ يَرْثِي لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنْ مَاتَ بِمَكَّةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from Amir ibn Sad ibn AbiWaqqas that his father said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, came to me to treat me for a pain whichbecame hard to bear in the year of the farewell hajj. I said,'Messenger of Allah, you can see how far the pain has reached me. Ihave property and only my daughter inherits from me. Shall I give twothirds of my property as sadaqa?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, said, 'No.' I said, 'Half?' He said,'No.' Then the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, 'A third, and a third is a lot. Leaving your heirs richis better than leaving them poor to beg from people. You never spendanything on maintenance desiring the Face of Allah by it, but that youare rewarded for it, even what you appoint for your wife.' Sad said,'Messenger of Allah, will I be left here in Makka after my companionshave departed for Madina?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, 'If you are left behind, and do sound deedsyou will increase your degree and elevation by them. Perhaps you willbe left behind so that some people may benefit by you and others maybe harmed by you. O Allah! complete their hijra for my companions, anddo not turn them back on their heels. The unfortunate one is Said ibnKhawla.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, was distressed on his account for he had died at Makka." Yahya said that he heard Malik speak about a man who willed athird of his property to a man and said as well, "My slave will serveso-and-so (another man) for as long as he lives, then he is free,"then that was looked into, and the slave was found to be a third ofthe property of the deceased. Malik said, "The service of the slave isevaluated. Then the two of them divide it between them. The one whowas willed a third takes his third, as a share, and the one who waswilled the service of the slave takes what was evaluated for him ofthe slave's service. Each of them takes, from the service of the slaveor from his wage if he has a wage, according to his share. If the onewho was given the service of the slave for as long as he lived dies,then the slave is freed." Yahya said that he heard Malikspeak about someone who willed his third and said "So-and-so has such-and-such, and so-and-so has such-and-such," naming some of hisproperty, and his heirs protested that it was more than a third."Malik said, "The heirs then have an option between giving thebeneficiaries their full bequests and taking the rest of the propertyof the deceased, or between dividing among the beneficiaries the thirdof the property of the deceased and surrendering to them their third.If they wish, their rights in it reach as far as they reach." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1461
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 4


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ مُخَنَّثًا، كَانَ عِنْدَ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي أُمَيَّةَ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْمَعُ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ إِنْ فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ الطَّائِفَ غَدًا فَأَنَا أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى ابْنَةِ غَيْلاَنَ فَإِنَّهَا تُقْبِلُ بِأَرْبَعٍ وَتُدْبِرُ بِثَمَانٍ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ لاَ يَدْخُلَنَّ هَؤُلاَءِ عَلَيْكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik said from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that aneffeminate man was with Umm Salama, the wife of the Prophet, may Allahbless him and grant him peace. He said to Abdullah ibn Abi Umayyawhile the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,was listening. "Abdullah! If Allah grants you victory over Ta'iftomorrow, I will lead you to the daughter of Ghailan. She has fourfolds on her front and eight folds on her back." The Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "This sort ofman should not enter freely with you." (It was customary to allow menwith no sexual inclination to enter freely where there were women). Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1462
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 5


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ، يَقُولُ كَانَتْ عِنْدَ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ امْرَأَةٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ فَوَلَدَتْ لَهُ عَاصِمَ بْنَ عُمَرَ ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ فَارَقَهَا فَجَاءَ عُمَرُ قُبَاءً فَوَجَدَ ابْنَهُ عَاصِمًا يَلْعَبُ بِفِنَاءِ الْمَسْجِدِ فَأَخَذَ بِعَضُدِهِ فَوَضَعَهُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ عَلَى الدَّابَّةِ فَأَدْرَكَتْهُ جَدَّةُ الْغُلاَمِ فَنَازَعَتْهُ إِيَّاهُ حَتَّى أَتَيَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقَ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ ابْنِي ‏.‏ وَقَالَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ ابْنِي ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ خَلِّ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَمَا رَاجَعَهُ عُمَرُ الْكَلاَمَ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ وَهَذَا الأَمْرُ الَّذِي آخُذُ بِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that Yahya ibn Said said that he heard al-Qasim ibn Muhammad say, "A woman of the Ansar was married to Umar ibnal-Khattab. She bore Asim ibn Umar to him, and then he separated fromher. Umar came to Quba and found his son Asim playing in the courtyardof the mosque. He took him by the arm and placed him before him on hismount. The grandmother of the child saw him and argued with Umar aboutthe child so they went to Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. Umar said, 'My son.' Thewoman said, 'My son.' Abu Bakr said, 'Do not interfere between a childand its mother.' Umar did not repeat his words." Yahya saidthat he heard Malik say, "This is what I would have done in thatsituation." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1463
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 6



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