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Muwatta Imam Malik

The Mukatab

كتاب المكاتب

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَ يَقُولُ الْمُكَاتَبُ عَبْدٌ مَا بَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ شَىْءٌ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar said, "Amukatab is a slave as long as any of his kitaba remains to be paid." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1492
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، كَانَا يَقُولاَنِ الْمُكَاتَبُ عَبْدٌ مَا بَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ شَىْءٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهُو رَأْيِي ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ هَلَكَ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا بَقِيَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ وَلَهُ وَلَدٌ وُلِدُوا فِي كِتَابَتِهِ أَوْ كَاتَبَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَرِثُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْمَالِ بَعْدَ قَضَاءِ كِتَابَتِهِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he had heard that Urwa ibn az-Zubayr andSulayman ibn Yasar said, "The mukatab is a slave as long as any of hiskitaba remains to be paid." Malik said, "This is my opinionas well." Malik said, "If a mukatab dies and leaves moreproperty than what remains to be paid of his kitaba and he haschildren who were born during the time of his kitaba or whose kitabahas been written as well, they inherit any property that remains afterthe kitaba has been paid." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1493
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 2


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْمَكِّيِّ، أَنَّ مُكَاتَبًا، كَانَ لاِبْنِ الْمُتَوَكِّلِ هَلَكَ بِمَكَّةَ وَتَرَكَ عَلَيْهِ بَقِيَّةً مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ وَدُيُونًا لِلنَّاسِ وَتَرَكَ ابْنَتَهُ فَأَشْكَلَ عَلَى عَامِلِ مَكَّةَ الْقَضَاءُ فِيهِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَى عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ يَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ عَبْدُ الْمَلِكِ أَنِ ابْدَأْ بِدُيُونِ النَّاسِ ثُمَّ اقْضِ مَا بَقِيَ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ ثُمَّ اقْسِمْ مَا بَقِيَ مِنْ مَالِهِ بَيْنَ ابْنَتِهِ وَمَوْلاَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ أَنْ يُكَاتِبَهُ إِذَا سَأَلَهُ ذَلِكَ وَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَنَّ أَحَدًا مِنَ الأَئِمَّةِ أَكْرَهَ رَجُلاً عَلَى أَنْ يُكَاتِبَ عَبْدَهُ وَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ بَعْضَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ إِذَا سُئِلَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَقُولُ ‏{‏فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا‏}‏ ‏.‏ يَتْلُو هَاتَيْنِ الآيَتَيْنِ ‏{‏وَإِذَا حَلَلْتُمْ فَاصْطَادُوا‏}‏ ‏.‏ ‏{‏فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلاَةُ فَانْتَشِرُوا فِي الأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِ اللَّهِ‏}‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ أَمْرٌ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهِ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَيْسَ بِوَاجِبٍ عَلَيْهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَسَمِعْتُ بَعْضَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُ فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى ‏{‏وَآتُوهُمْ مِنْ مَالِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي آتَاكُمْ‏}‏ ‏.‏ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَنْ يُكَاتِبَ الرَّجُلُ غُلاَمَهُ ثُمَّ يَضَعُ عَنْهُ مِنْ آخِرِ كِتَابَتِهِ شَيْئًا مُسَمًّى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَهَذَا الَّذِي سَمِعْتُ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ وَأَدْرَكْتُ عَمَلَ النَّاسِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ كَاتَبَ غُلاَمًا لَهُ عَلَى خَمْسَةٍ وَثَلاَثِينَ أَلْفَ دِرْهَمٍ ثُمَّ وَضَعَ عَنْهُ مِنْ آخِرِ كِتَابَتِهِ خَمْسَةَ آلاَفِ دِرْهَمٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْمُكَاتَبَ إِذَا كَاتَبَهُ سَيِّدُهُ تَبِعَهُ مَالُهُ وَلَمْ يَتْبَعْهُ وَلَدُهُ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطَهُمْ فِي كِتَابَتِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى سَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ يُكَاتِبُهُ سَيِّدُهُ وَلَهُ جَارِيَةٌ بِهَا حَبَلٌ مِنْهُ لَمْ يَعْلَمْ بِهِ هُوَ وَلاَ سَيِّدُهُ يَوْمَ كِتَابَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَتْبَعُهُ ذَلِكَ الْوَلَدُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ دَخَلَ فِي كِتَابَتِهِ وَهُوَ لِسَيِّدِهِ فَأَمَّا الْجَارِيَةُ فَإِنَّهَا لِلْمُكَاتَبِ لأَنَّهَا مِنْ مَالِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ وَرِثَ مُكَاتَبًا مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ هُوَ وَابْنُهَا إِنَّ الْمُكَاتَبَ إِنْ مَاتَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقْضِيَ كِتَابَتَهُ اقْتَسَمَا مِيرَاثَهُ عَلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَإِنْ أَدَّى كِتَابَتَهُ ثُمَّ مَاتَ فَمِيرَاثُهُ لاِبْنِ الْمَرْأَةِ وَلَيْسَ لِلزَّوْجِ مِنْ مِيرَاثِهِ شَىْءٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ يُكَاتِبُ عَبْدَهُ قَالَ يُنْظَرُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَإِنْ كَانَ إِنَّمَا أَرَادَ الْمُحَابَاةَ لِعَبْدِهِ وَعُرِفَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ بِالتَّخْفِيفِ عَنْهُ فَلاَ يَجُوزُ ذَلِكَ وَإِنْ كَانَ إِنَّمَا كَاتَبَهُ عَلَى وَجْهِ الرَّغْبَةِ وَطَلَبِ الْمَالِ وَابْتِغَاءِ الْفَضْلِ وَالْعَوْنِ عَلَى كِتَابَتِهِ فَذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ لَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ وَطِئَ مُكَاتَبَةً لَهُ إِنَّهَا إِنْ حَمَلَتْ فَهِيَ بِالْخِيَارِ إِنْ شَاءَتْ كَانَتْ أُمَّ وَلَدٍ وَإِنْ شَاءَتْ قَرَّتْ عَلَى كِتَابَتِهَا فَإِنْ لَمْ تَحْمِلْ فَهِيَ عَلَى كِتَابَتِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا فِي الَعَبْدِ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرَّجُلَيْنِ إِنَّ أَحَدَهُمَا لاَ يُكَاتِبُ نَصِيبَهُ مِنْهُ أَذِنَ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ صَاحِبُهُ أَوْ لَمْ يَأْذَنْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يُكَاتِبَاهُ جَمِيعًا لأَنَّ ذَلِكَ يَعْقِدُ لَهُ عِتْقًا وَيَصِيرُ إِذَا أَدَّى الْعَبْدُ مَا كُوتِبَ عَلَيْهِ إِلَى أَنْ يَعْتِقَ نِصْفُهُ وَلاَ يَكُونُ عَلَى الَّذِي كَاتَبَ بَعْضَهُ أَنْ يَسْتَتِمَّ عِتْقَهُ فَذَلِكَ خِلاَفُ مَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ قُوِّمَ عَلَيْهِ قِيمَةَ الْعَدْلِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ جَهِلَ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى يُؤَدِّيَ الْمُكَاتَبُ أَوْ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَ رَدَّ إِلَيْهِ الَّذِي كَاتَبَهُ مَا قَبَضَ مِنَ الْمُكَاتَبِ فَاقْتَسَمَهُ هُوَ وَشَرِيكُهُ عَلَى قَدْرِ حِصَصِهِمَا وَبَطَلَتْ كِتَابَتُهُ وَكَانَ عَبْدًا لَهُمَا عَلَى حَالِهِ الأُولَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي مُكَاتَبٍ بَيْنَ رَجُلَيْنِ فَأَنْظَرَهُ أَحَدُهُمَا بِحَقِّهِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ وَأَبَى الآخَرُ أَنْ يُنْظِرَهُ فَاقْتَضَى الَّذِي أَبَى أَنْ يُنْظِرَهُ بَعْضَ حَقِّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتَ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً لَيْسَ فِيهِ وَفَاءٌ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ قَالَ مَالِكٌ يَتَحَاصَّانِ بِقَدْرِ مَا بَقِيَ لَهُمَا عَلَيْهِ يَأْخُذُ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا بِقَدْرِ حِصَّتِهِ فَإِنْ تَرَكَ الْمُكَاتَبُ فَضْلاً عَنْ كِتَابَتِهِ أَخَذَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْكِتَابَةِ وَكَانَ مَا بَقِيَ بَيْنَهُمَا بِالسَّوَاءِ فَإِنْ عَجَزَ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَقَدِ اقْتَضَى الَّذِي لَمْ يُنْظِرْهُ أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا اقْتَضَى صَاحِبُهُ كَانَ الْعَبْدُ بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَيْنِ وَلاَ يَرُدُّ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ فَضْلَ مَا اقْتَضَى لأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا اقْتَضَى الَّذِي لَهُ بِإِذْنِ صَاحِبِهِ وَإِنْ وَضَعَ عَنْهُ أَحَدُهُمَا الَّذِي لَهُ ثُمَّ اقْتَضَى صَاحِبُهُ بَعْضَ الَّذِي لَهُ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ عَجَزَ فَهُوَ بَيْنَهُمَا وَلاَ يَرُدُّ الَّذِي اقْتَضَى عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ شَيْئًا لأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا اقْتَضَى الَّذِي لَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الدَّيْنِ لِلرَّجُلَيْنِ بِكِتَابٍ وَاحِدٍ عَلَى رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ فَيُنْظِرُهُ أَحَدُهُمَا وَيَشِحُّ الآخَرُ فَيَقْتَضِي بَعْضَ حَقِّهِ ثُمَّ يُفْلِسُ الْغَرِيمُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى الَّذِي اقْتَضَى أَنْ يَرُدَّ شَيْئًا مِمَّا أَخَذَ ‏.

Malik related to me from Humayd ibn Qays al-Makki that a son ofal-Mutawakkil had a mukatab who died at Makka and left (enough to pay)the rest of his kitaba and he owed some debts to people. He also lefta daughter. The governor of Makka was not certain about how to judgein the case, so he wrote to Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan to ask him aboutit. Abd al-Malik wrote to him, "Begin with the debts owed to people,and then pay what remains of his kitaba. Then divide what remains ofthe property between the daughter and the master." Maliksaid, "What is done among us is that the master of a slave does nothave to give his slave a kitaba if he asks for it. I have not heard ofany of the Imams forcing a man to give a kitaba to his slave. I heardthat one of the people of knowledge, when someone asked about that andmentioned that Allah the Blessed, the Exalted, said, 'Give them theirkitaba, if you know some good in them' (Sura 24 ayat 33) recited thesetwo ayats, 'When you are free of the state of ihram, then hunt forgame.' (Sura 5 ayat 3) 'When the prayer is finished, scatter in theland and seek Allah's favour.' " (Sura 62 ayat 10) Malikcommented, "It is a way of doing things for which Allah, the Mighty,the Majestic, has given permission to people, and it is not obligatoryfor them." Malik said, "I heard one of the people of knowledge sayabout the word of Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, 'Give them of thewealth which Allah has given you,' that it meant that a man give hisslave a kitaba and then reduce the end of his kitaba for him by somespecific amount." Malik said, "This is what I have heard fromthe people of knowledge and what I see people doing here." Malik said, "I have heard that Abdullah ibn Umar gave one of hisslaves his kitaba for 35,000 dirhams, and then reduced the end of hiskitaba by 5,000 dirhams." Malik said, "What is done among usis that when a master gives a mukatab his kitaba, the mukatab'sproperty goes with him but his children do not go with him unless hestipulates that in his kitaba." Yahya said, "I heard Maliksay that if a mukatab whose master had given him a kitaba had a slave-girl who was pregnant by him, and neither he nor his master knew thaton the day he was given his kitaba, the child did not follow himbecause he was not included in the kitaba. He belonged to the master.As for the slave-girl, she belonged to the mukatab because she was hisproperty." Malik said that if a man and his wife's son (byanother husband) inherited a mukatab from the wife and the mukatabdied before he had completed his kitaba, they divided his inheritancebetween them according to the Book of Allah. If the slave paid hiskitaba and then died, his inheritance went to the son of the woman,and the husband had nothing of his inheritance. Malik saidthat if a mukatab gave his own slave a kitaba, the situation waslooked at. If he wanted to do his slave a favour and it was obvious byhis making it easy for him, that was not permitted. If he was givinghim a kitaba from desire to find money to pay off his own kitaba, thatwas permitted for him. Malik said that if a man hadintercourse with a mukataba of his and she became pregnant by him, shehad an option. If she liked she could be an umm walad. If she wished,she could confirm her kitaba. If she did not conceive, she still hadher kitaba. Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doingthings among us about a slave who is owned by two men is that one ofthem does not give a kitaba for his share, whether or not hiscompanion gives him permission to do so, unless they both write thekitaba together, because that alone would effect setting him free. Ifthe slave were to fulfil what he had agreed on to free half ofhimself, and then the one who had given a kitaba for half of him wasnot obliged to complete his setting free, that would be in oppositionto the words of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace. 'If someone frees his share in a slave and has enough moneyto cover the full price of the slave, justly evaluated for him, hemust give his partners their shares, so the slave is completely free .' " Malik said, "If he is not aware of that until the mukatabhas met the terms or before he has met them the owner who has writtenhim the kitaba returns what he has taken from the mukatab to him, andthen he and his partner divide him according to their original sharesand the kitaba is invalid. He is the slave of both of them in hisoriginal state." Malik spoke about a mukatab who was owned bytwo men and one of them granted him a delay in the payment of theright which he was owed, and the other refused to defer it, and so theone who refused to defer the payment exacted his part of the due.Malik said that if the mukatab then died and left property which didnot complete his kitaba, "They divide it according to what they arestill owed by him. Each of them takes according to his share. If themukatab leaves more than his kitaba, each of them takes what remainsto them of the kitaba, and what remains after that is divided equallybetween them. If the mukatab is unable to pay his kitaba fully and theone who did not allow him to defer his payment has exacted more thanhis associate did, the slave is still divided equally between them,and he does not return to his associates the excess of what he hasexacted, because he only exacted his right with the permission of hisassociate. If one of them remits what is owed to him and then hisassociate exacts part of what he is owed by him and then the mukatabis unable to pay, he belongs to both of them. And the one who hasexacted something does not return anything because he only demandedwhat he was owed. That is like the debt of two men in one writingagainst one man. One of them grants him time to pay and the other isgreedy and exacts his due. Then the debtor goes bankrupt. The one whoexacted his due does not have to return any of what he took." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1494
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 3


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ، زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَتْ تُقَاطِعُ مُكَاتَبِيهَا بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا فِي الْمَكَاتَبِ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الشَّرِيكَيْنِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَجُوزُ لأَحَدِهِمَا أَنْ يُقَاطِعَهُ عَلَى حِصَّتِهِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ شَرِيكِهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ وَمَالَهُ بَيْنَهُمَا فَلاَ يَجُوزُ لأَحَدِهِمَا أَنْ يَأْخُذَ شَيْئًا مِنْ مَالِهِ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ شَرِيكِهِ وَلَوْ قَاطَعَهُ أَحَدُهُمَا دُونَ صَاحِبِهِ ثُمَّ حَازَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ مَاتَ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَلَهُ مَالٌ أَوْ عَجَزَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِمَنْ قَاطَعَهُ شَىْءٌ مِنْ مَالِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ أَنْ يَرُدَّ مَا قَاطَعَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَيَرْجِعَ حَقُّهُ فِي رَقَبَتِهِ وَلَكِنْ مَنْ قَاطَعَ مُكَاتَبًا بِإِذْنِ شَرِيكِهِ ثُمَّ عَجَزَ الْمُكَاتَبُ فَإِنْ أَحَبَّ الَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ أَنْ يَرُدَّ الَّذِي أَخَذَ مِنْهُ مِنَ الْقَطَاعَةِ وَيَكُونُ عَلَى نَصِيبِهِ مِنْ رَقَبَةِ الْمُكَاتَبِ كَانَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ وَإِنْ مَاتَ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً اسْتَوْفَى الَّذِي بَقِيَتْ لَهُ الْكِتَابَةُ حَقَّهُ الَّذِي بَقِيَ لَهُ عَلَى الْمُكَاتَبِ مِنْ مَالِهِ ثُمَّ كَانَ مَا بَقِيَ مِنْ مَالِ الْمُكَاتَبِ بَيْنَ الَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ وَبَيْنَ شَرِيكِهِ عَلَى قَدْرِ حِصَصِهِمَا فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَحَدُهُمَا قَاطَعَهُ وَتَمَاسَكَ صَاحِبُهُ بِالْكِتَابَةِ ثُمَّ عَجَزَ الْمُكَاتَبُ قِيلَ لِلَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ إِنْ شِئْتَ أَنْ تَرُدَّ عَلَى صَاحِبِكَ نِصْفَ الَّذِي أَخَذْتَ وَيَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ بَيْنَكُمَا شَطْرَيْنِ وَإِنْ أَبَيْتَ فَجَمِيعُ الْعَبْدِ لِلَّذِي تَمَسَّكَ بِالرِّقِّ خَالِصًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرَّجُلَيْنِ فَيُقَاطِعُهُ أَحَدُهُمَا بِإِذْنِ صَاحِبِهِ ثُمَّ يَقْتَضِي الَّذِي تَمَسَّكَ بِالرِّقِّ مِثْلَ مَا قَاطَعَ عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُهُ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَعْجِزُ الْمُكَاتَبُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَهُوَ بَيْنَهُمَا لأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا اقْتَضَى الَّذِي لَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنِ اقْتَضَى أَقَلَّ مِمَّا أَخَذَ الَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ ثُمَّ عَجَزَ الْمُكَاتَبُ فَأَحَبَّ الَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ أَنَّ يَرُدَّ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ نِصْفَ مَا تَفَضَّلَهُ بِهِ وَيَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَيْنِ فَذَلِكَ لَهُ وَإِنْ أَبَى فَجَمِيعُ الْعَبْدِ لِلَّذِي لَمْ يُقَاطِعْهُ وَإِنْ مَاتَ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً فَأَحَبَّ الَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ أَنْ يَرُدَّ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ نِصْفَ مَا تَفَضَّلَهُ بِهِ وَيَكُونُ الْمِيرَاثُ بَيْنَهُمَا فَذَلِكَ لَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي تَمَسَّكَ بِالْكِتَابَةِ قَدْ أَخَذَ مِثْلَ مَا قَاطَعَ عَلَيْهِ شَرِيكُهُ أَوْ أَفْضَلَ فَالْمِيرَاثُ بَيْنَهُمَا بِقَدْرِ مِلْكِهِمَا لأَنَّهُ إِنَّمَا أَخَذَ حَقَّهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الرَّجُلَيْنِ فَيُقَاطِعُ أَحَدُهُمَا عَلَى نِصْفِ حَقِّهُ بِإِذْنِ صَاحِبِهِ ثُمَّ يَقْبِضُ الَّذِي تَمَسَّكَ بِالرِّقِّ أَقَلَّ مِمَّا قَاطَعَ عَلَيْهِ صَاحِبُهُ ثُمَّ يَعْجِزُ الْمُكَاتَبُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِنْ أَحَبَّ الَّذِي قَاطَعَ الْعَبْدَ أَنْ يَرُدَّ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ نِصْفَ مَا تَفَضَّلَهُ بِهِ كَانَ الْعَبْدُ بَيْنَهُمَا شَطْرَيْنِ وَإِنْ أَبَى أَنْ يَرُدَّ فَلِلَّذِي تَمَسَّكَ بِالرِّقِّ حِصَّةُ صَاحِبِهِ الَّذِي كَانَ قَاطَعَ عَلَيْهِ الْمُكَاتَبَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَتَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُمَا شَطْرَيْنِ فَيُكَاتِبَانِهِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ يُقَاطِعُ أَحَدُهُمَا الْمُكَاتَبَ عَلَى نِصْفِ حَقِّهِ بِإِذْنِ صَاحِبِهِ وَذَلِكَ الرُّبُعُ مِنْ جَمِيعِ الْعَبْدِ ثُمَّ يَعْجِزُ الْمُكَاتَبُ فَيُقَالُ لِلَّذِي قَاطَعَهُ إِنْ شِئْتَ فَارْدُدْ عَلَى صَاحِبِكَ نِصْفَ مَا فَضَلْتَهُ بِهِ وَيَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ بَيْنَكُمَا شَطْرَيْنِ ‏.‏ وَإِنْ أَبَى كَانَ لِلَّذِي تَمَسَّكَ بِالْكِتَابَةِ رُبُعُ صَاحِبِهِ الَّذِي قَاطَعَ الْمُكَاتَبَ عَلَيْهِ خَالِصًا وَكَانَ لَهُ نِصْفُ الْعَبْدِ فَذَلِكَ ثَلاَثَةُ أَرْبَاعِ الْعَبْدِ وَكَانَ لِلَّذِي قَاطَعَ رُبُعُ الْعَبْدِ لأَنَّهُ أَبَى أَنْ يَرُدَّ ثَمَنَ رُبُعِهِ الَّذِي قَاطَعَ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ يُقَاطِعُهُ سَيِّدُهُ فَيَعْتِقُ وَيَكْتُبُ عَلَيْهِ مَا بَقِيَ مِنْ قَطَاعَتِهِ دَيْنًا عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ يَمُوتُ الْمُكَاتَبُ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ لِلنَّاسِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنَّ سَيِّدَهُ لاَ يُحَاصُّ غُرَمَاءَهُ بِالَّذِي عَلَيْهِ مِنْ قَطَاعَتِهِ وَلِغُرَمَائِهِ أَنْ يُبَدَّءُوا عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لَيْسَ لِلْمُكَاتَبِ أَنْ يُقَاطِعَ سَيِّدَهُ إِذَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ لِلنَّاسِ فَيَعْتِقُ وَيَصِيرُ لاَ شَىْءَ لَهُ لأَنَّ أَهْلَ الدَّيْنِ أَحَقُّ بِمَالِهِ مِنْ سَيِّدِهِ فَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ بِجَائِزٍ لَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الرَّجُلِ يُكَاتِبُ عَبْدَهُ ثُمَّ يُقَاطِعُهُ بِالذَّهَبِ فَيَضَعُ عَنْهُ مِمَّا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْكِتَابَةِ عَلَى أَنْ يُعَجِّلَ لَهُ مَا قَاطَعَهُ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِذَلِكَ بَأْسٌ وَإِنَّمَا كَرِهَ ذَلِكَ مَنْ كَرِهَهُ لأَنَّهُ أَنْزَلَهُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الدَّيْنِ يَكُونُ لِلرَّجُلِ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ إِلَى أَجَلٍ فَيَضَعُ عَنْهُ وَيَنْقُدُهُ وَلَيْسَ هَذَا مِثْلَ الدَّيْنِ إِنَّمَا كَانَتْ قَطَاعَةُ الْمُكَاتَبِ سَيِّدَهُ عَلَى أَنْ يُعْطِيَهُ مَالاً فِي أَنْ يَتَعَجَّلَ الْعِتْقَ فَيَجِبُ لَهُ الْمِيرَاثُ وَالشَّهَادَةُ وَالْحُدُودُ وَتَثْبُتُ لَهُ حُرْمَةُ الْعَتَاقَةِ وَلَمْ يَشْتَرِ دَرَاهِمَ بِدَرَاهِمَ وَلاَ ذَهَبًا بِذَهَبٍ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُ رَجُلٍ قَالَ لِغُلاَمِهِ ائْتِنِي بِكَذَا وَكَذَا دِينَارًا وَأَنْتَ حُرٌّ فَوَضَعَ عَنْهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنْ جِئْتَنِي بِأَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَأَنْتَ حُرٌّ ‏.‏ فَلَيْسَ هَذَا دَيْنًا ثَابِتًا وَلَوْ كَانَ دَيْنًا ثَابِتًا لَحَاصَّ بِهِ السَّيِّدُ غُرَمَاءَ الْمُكَاتَبِ إِذَا مَاتَ أَوْ أَفْلَسَ فَدَخَلَ مَعَهُمْ فِي مَالِ مُكَاتَبِهِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he heard that Umm Salama, the wife ofthe Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, made asettlement with her mukatab for an agreed amount of gold and silver. Malik said, "The generally agreed on way of doing thingsamong us in the case of a mukatab who is shared by two partners, isthat one of them cannot make a settlement with him for an agreed priceaccording to his portion without the consent of his partner. That isbecause the slave and his property are owned by both of them, and soone of them is not permitted to take any of the property except withthe consent of his partner. If one of them settled with the mukataband his partner did not, and he took the agreed price, and then themukatab died while he had property or was unable to pay, the one whosettled would not have anything of the mukatab's property and he couldnot return that for which he made settlement so that his right to theslave's person would return to him. However, when someone settles witha mukatab with the permission of his partner and then the mukatab isunable to pay, it is preferable that the one who broke with him returnwhat he has taken from the mukatab for the severance and he can haveback his portion of the mukatab. He can do that. If the mukatab diesand leaves property, the partner who has kept hold of the kitaba ispaid in full the amount of the kitaba which remains to him against themukatab from the mukatab's property. Then what remains of property ofthe mukatab is between the partner who broke with him and his partner,according to their shares in the mukatab. If one of the partnersbreaks off with him and the other keeps the kitaba, and the mukatab isunable to pay, it is said to the partner who settled with him, 'If youwish to give your partner half of what you took so the slave isdivided between you, then do so. If you refuse, then all of the slavebelongs to the one who held on to possession of the slave.' " Malik spoke about a mukatab who was shared between two men and one ofthem made a settlement with him with the permission of his partner.Then the one who retained possession of the slave demanded the like ofthat for which his partner had settled or more than that and themukatab could not pay it. He said, "The mukatab is shared between thembecause the man has only demanded what is owed to him. If he demandsless than what the one who settled with him took and the mukatab cannot manage that, and the one who settled with him prefers to return tohis partner half of what he took so the slave is divided in halvesbetween them, he can do that. If he refuses then all of the slavebelongs to the one who did not settle with him. If the mukatab diesand leaves property, and the one who settled with him prefers toreturn to his companion half of what he has taken so the inheritanceis divided between them, he can do that. If the one who has kept thekitaba takes the like of what the one who has settled with him took,or more, the inheritance is between them according to their shares inthe slave because he is only taking his right." Malik spokeabout a mukatab who was shared between two men and one of them made asettlement with him for half of what was due to him with thepermission of his partner, and then the one who retained possession ofthe slave took less than what his partner settled with him for and themukatab was unable to pay. He said, "If the one who made a settlementwith the slave prefers to return half of what he was awarded to hispartner, the slave is divided between them. If he refuses to returnit, the one who retained possession has the portion of the share forwhich his partner made a settlement with the mukatab." Maliksaid, "The explanation of that is that the slave is divided in twohalves between them. They write him a kitaba together and then one ofthem makes a settlement with the mukatab for half his due with thepermission of his partner. That is a fourth of all the slave. Then themukatab is unable to continue, so it is said to the one who settledwith him, 'If you wish, return to your partner half of what you wereawarded and the slave is divided equally between you.' If he refuses,the one who held to the kitaba takes in full the fourth of his partnerfor which he made settlement with the mukatab. He had half the slave,so that now gives him three-fourths of the slave. The one who brokeoff has a fourth of the slave because he refused to return theequivalent of the fourth share for which he settled." Malikspoke about a mukatab whose master made a settlement with him and sethim free and what remained of his severance was written against him asdebt, then the mukatab died and people had debts against him. He said,"His master does not share with the creditors because of what he isowed from the severance. The creditors begin first." Maliksaid, "A mukatab cannot break with his master when he owes debts topeople. He would be set free and have nothing because the people whohold the debts are more entitled to his property than his master. Thatis not permitted for him." Malik said, "According to the waythings are done among us, there is no harm if a man gives a kitaba tohis slave and settles with him for gold and reduces what he is owed ofthe kitaba provided that only the gold is paid immediately. Whoeverdisapproves of that does so because he puts it in the category of adebt which a man has against another man for a set term. He gives hima reduction and he pays it immediately. This is not like that debt.The breaking of the mukatab with his master is dependent on his givingmoney to speed up the setting free. Inheritance, testimony and thehudud are obliged for him and the inviolability of being set free isestablished for him. He is not buying dirhams for dirhams or gold forgold. Rather it is like a man who having said to his slave, 'Bring mesuch-and-such an amount of dinars and you are free', then reduces thatfor him, saying, 'If you bring me less than that, you are free.' Thatis not a fixed debt. Had it been a fixed debt, the master would haveshared with the creditors of the mukatab when he died or wentbankrupt. His claim on the property of the mukatab would join theirs." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1496
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 5


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، وَسُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، سُئِلاَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، كَاتَبَ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ وَعَلَى بَنِيهِ ثُمَّ مَاتَ هَلْ يَسْعَى بَنُو الْمُكَاتَبِ فِي كِتَابَةِ أَبِيهِمْ أَمْ هُمْ عَبِيدٌ فَقَالاَ بَلْ يَسْعَوْنَ فِي كِتَابَةِ أَبِيهِمْ وَلاَ يُوْضَعُ عَنْهُمْ لِمَوْتِ أَبِيهِمْ شَىْءٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنْ كَانُوا صِغَارًا لاَ يُطِيقُونَ السَّعْىَ لَمْ يُنْتَظَرْ بِهِمْ أَنْ يَكْبَرُوا وَكَانُوا رَقِيقًا لِسَيِّدِ أَبِيهِمْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمُكَاتَبُ تَرَكَ مَا يُؤَدَّى بِهِ عَنْهُمْ نُجُومُهُمْ إِلَى أَنْ يَتَكَلَّفُوا السَّعْىَ فَإِنْ كَانَ فِيمَا تَرَكَ مَا يُؤَدَّى عَنْهُمْ أُدِّيَ ذَلِكَ عَنْهُمْ وَتُرِكُوا عَلَى حَالِهِمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغُوا السَّعْىَ فَإِنْ أَدَّوْا عَتَقُوا وَإِنْ عَجَزُوا رَقُّوا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُكَاتَبِ يَمُوتُ وَيَتْرُكُ مَالاً لَيْسَ فِيهِ وَفَاءُ الْكِتَابَةِ وَيَتْرُكُ وَلَدًا مَعَهُ فِي كِتَابَتِهِ وَأُمَّ وَلَدٍ فَأَرَادَتْ أُمُّ وَلَدِهِ أَنْ تَسْعَى عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّهُ يُدْفَعُ إِلَيْهَا الْمَالُ إِذَا كَانَتْ مَأْمُونَةً عَلَى ذَلِكَ قَوِيَّةً عَلَى السَّعْىِ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ قَوِيَّةً عَلَى السَّعْىِ وَلاَ مَأْمُونَةً عَلَى الْمَالِ لَمْ تُعْطَ شَيْئًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَرَجَعَتْ هِيَ وَوَلَدُ الْمُكَاتَبِ رَقِيقًا لِسَيِّدِ الْمُكَاتَبِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِذَا كَاتَبَ الْقَوْمُ جَمِيعًا كِتَابَةً وَاحِدَةً وَلاَ رَحِمَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَعَجَزَ بَعْضُهُمْ وَسَعَى بَعْضُهُمْ حَتَّى عَتَقُوا جَمِيعًا فَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ سَعَوْا يَرْجِعُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ عَجَزُوا بِحِصَّةِ مَا أَدَّوْا عَنْهُمْ لأَنَّ بَعْضَهُمْ حُمَلاَءُ عَنْ بَعْضٍ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he heard that Urwa ibn az-Zubayr andSulayman ibn Yasar when asked whether the sons of a man, who had akitaba written for himself and his children and then died, worked forthe kitaba of their father or were slaves, said, "They work for thekitaba of their father and they have no reduction at all for the deathof their father." Malik said, "If they are small and unableto work, one does not wait for them to grow up and they are slaves oftheir father's master unless the mukatab has left what will pay theirinstalments for them until they can work. If there is enough to payfor them in what he has left, that is paid for on their behalf andthey are left in their condition until they can work, and then if theypay, they are free. If they cannot do it, they are slaves." Malik spoke about a mukatab who died and left property which was notenough to pay his kitaba, and he also left a child with him in hiskitaba and an umm walad, and the umm walad wanted to work for them. Hesaid, "The money is paid to her if she is trustworthy with it andstrong enough to work. If she is not strong enough to work and nottrustworthy with property, she is not given any of it and she and thechildren of the mukatab revert to being slaves of the master of themukatab." Malik said, "If people are written together in onekitaba and there is no kinship between them, and some of them areincapable and others work until they are all set free, those whoworked can claim from those who were unable, the portion of what theypaid for them because some of them assumed the responsibility forothers." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1497
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 8


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَبِيعَةَ بْنَ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَغَيْرَهُ، يَذْكُرُونَ أَنَّ مَكَاتَبًا، كَانَ لِلْفُرَافِصَةِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ الْحَنَفِيِّ وَأَنَّهُ عَرَضَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعَ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ كِتَابَتِهِ فَأَبَى الْفُرَافِصَةُ فَأَتَى الْمُكَاتَبُ مَرْوَانَ بْنَ الْحَكَمِ وَهُوَ أَمِيرُ الْمَدِينَةِ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَدَعَا مَرْوَانُ الْفُرَافِصَةَ فَقَالَ لَهُ ذَلِكَ فَأَبَى فَأَمَرَ مَرْوَانُ بِذَلِكَ الْمَالِ أَنْ يُقْبَضَ مِنَ الْمُكَاتَبِ فَيُوضَعَ فِي بَيْتِ الْمَالِ وَقَالَ لِلْمُكَاتَبِ اذْهَبْ فَقَدْ عَتَقْتَ ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا رَأَى ذَلِكَ الْفُرَافِصَةُ قَبَضَ الْمَالَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْمُكَاتَبَ إِذَا أَدَّى جَمِيعَ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ نُجُومِهِ قَبْلَ مَحِلِّهَا جَازَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لِسَيِّدِهِ أَنْ يَأْبَى ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ يَضَعُ عَنِ الْمُكَاتَبِ بِذَلِكَ كُلَّ شَرْطٍ أَوْ خِدْمَةٍ أَوْ سَفَرٍ لأَنَّهُ لاَ تَتِمُّ عَتَاقَةُ رَجُلٍ وَعَلَيْهِ بَقِيَّةٌ مِنْ رِقٍّ وَلاَ تَتِمُّ حُرْمَتُهُ وَلاَ تَجُوزُ شَهَادَتُهُ وَلاَ يَجِبُ مِيرَاثُهُ وَلاَ أَشْبَاهُ هَذَا مِنْ أَمْرِهِ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لِسَيِّدِهِ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطَ عَلَيْهِ خِدْمَةً بَعْدَ عَتَاقَتِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي مُكَاتَبٍ مَرِضَ مَرَضًا شَدِيدًا فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ نُجُومَهُ كُلَّهَا إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ لأَنْ يَرِثَهُ وَرَثَةٌ لَهُ أَحْرَارٌ وَلَيْسَ مَعَهُ فِي كِتَابَتِهِ وَلَدٌ لَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ ذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ لَهُ لأَنَّهُ تَتِمُّ بِذَلِكَ حُرْمَتُهُ وَتَجُوزُ شَهَادَتُهُ وَيَجُوزُ اعْتِرَافُهُ بِمَا عَلَيْهِ مِنْ دُيُونِ النَّاسِ وَتَجُوزُ وَصِيَّتُهُ وَلَيْسَ لِسَيِّدِهِ أَنْ يَأْبَى ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ بِأَنْ يَقُولَ فَرَّ مِنِّي بِمَالِهِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he heard Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman andothers mention that al-Furafisa ibn Umar al-Hanafi had a mukatab whooffered to pay him all of his kitaba that he owed. Al-Furafisa refusedto accept it and the mukatab went to Marwan ibn al-Hakam who was theamir of Madina and brought up the matter. Marwan summoned al-Furafisaand told him to accept. He refused. Marwan then ordered that thepayment be taken from the mukatab and placed in the treasury. He saidto the mukatab "Go, you are free." When al-Furafisa saw that, he tookthe money. Malik said, "What is done among us when a mukatabpays all the instalments he owes before their term, is that it ispermitted to him. The master cannot refuse him that. That is becausepayment removes every condition from the mukatab as well as serviceand travel. The setting free of a man is not complete while he has anyremaining slavery, and neither would his inviolability as a free manbe complete and his testimony permitted and inheritance obliged andsuch things in that situation. His master must not make anystipulation of service on him after he has been set free." Malik said that it was permitted for a mukatab who became extremelyill and wanted to pay his master all his instalments because his heirswho were free would then inherit from him and he had no children withhim in his kitaba, to do so, because by that he completed hisinviolability as a free man, his testimony was permitted, and hisadmission of what he owed of debts to people was permitted. Hisbequest was permitted as well. His master could not refuse him that bysaying, "He is escaping from me with his property." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 1498
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 39 Hadith no 9



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