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Muwatta Imam Malik

The Oath of Qasama

كتاب القسامة

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي لَيْلَى بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ، عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ أَبِي حَثْمَةَ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ رِجَالٌ، مِنْ كُبَرَاءِ قَوْمِهِ أَنَّ عَبْدَ، اللَّهِ بْنَ سَهْلٍ وَمُحَيِّصَةَ خَرَجَا إِلَى خَيْبَرَ مِنْ جَهْدٍ أَصَابَهُمْ فَأُتِيَ مُحَيِّصَةُ فَأُخْبِرَ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ سَهْلٍ قَدْ قُتِلَ وَطُرِحَ فِي فَقِيرِ بِئْرٍ أَوْ عَيْنٍ فَأَتَى يَهُودَ فَقَالَ أَنْتُمْ وَاللَّهِ قَتَلْتُمُوهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا وَاللَّهِ مَا قَتَلْنَاهُ ‏.‏ فَأَقْبَلَ حَتَّى قَدِمَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ فَذَكَرَ لَهُمْ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ هُوَ وَأَخُوهُ حُوَيِّصَةُ وَهُوَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْهُ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ فَذَهَبَ مُحَيِّصَةُ لِيَتَكَلَّمَ وَهُوَ الَّذِي كَانَ بِخَيْبَرَ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ كَبِّرْ كَبِّرْ ‏"‏ يُرِيدُ السِّنَّ فَتَكَلَّمَ حُوَيِّصَةُ ثُمَّ تَكَلَّمَ مُحَيِّصَةُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِمَّا أَنْ يَدُوا صَاحِبَكُمْ وَإِمَّا أَنْ يُؤْذِنُوا بِحَرْبٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبُوا إِنَّا وَاللَّهِ مَا قَتَلْنَاهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِحُوَيِّصَةَ وَمُحَيِّصَةَ وَعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ ‏"‏ أَتَحْلِفُونَ وَتَسْتَحِقُّونَ دَمَ صَاحِبِكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَفَتَحْلِفُ لَكُمْ يَهُودُ ‏"‏ قَالُوا لَيْسُوا بِمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.‏ فَوَدَاهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنْ عِنْدِهِ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِمِائَةِ نَاقَةٍ حَتَّى أُدْخِلَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الدَّارَ ‏.‏ قَالَ سَهْلٌ لَقَدْ رَكَضَتْنِي مِنْهَا نَاقَةٌ حَمْرَاءُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu Layla ibn Abdullah ibnAbd ar-Rahman ibn Sahl from Sahl ibn Abi Hathma that some of the greatmen of his people informed him that Abdullah ibn Sahl and Muhayyisawent out to Khaybar because extreme poverty had overtaken them.Muhayyisa returned and said that Abdullah ibn Sahl had been killed andthrown in a shallow well or spring. The jews came and he said, "ByAllah! You have killed him." They said, "By Allah! We have not killedhim!" Then he made for his people and mentioned that to them. Then he,his brother Huwayyisa, who was older than him, and Abd ar-Rahman, setout. Muhayyisa began to speak, as he had been at Khaybar. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said tohim, "The greater first, the greater first," meaning in age. SoHuwayyisa spoke and then Muhayyisa spoke. The Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Either they pay yourcompanion's blood-money or we will declare war against them." TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, wrotethat to them and they wrote, "By Allah, we did not kill him!" TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said toHuwayyisa, Muhayyisa, and Abd ar-Rahman, "Do you swear and claim theblood of your companion?" They said, "No." He said, "Shall the jewsswear to you?" They said, "But they are not muslims." The Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, gave blood-money fromhis own property, and sent them one hundred camels to their house. Sahl added, "A red camel among them kicked me." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 44 Hadith no 1599
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 44 Hadith no 1


قَالَ يَحْيَى عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ بُشَيْرِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ سَهْلٍ الأَنْصَارِيَّ وَمُحَيِّصَةَ بْنَ مَسْعُودٍ خَرَجَا إِلَى خَيْبَرَ فَتَفَرَّقَا فِي حَوَائِجِهِمَا فَقُتِلَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ سَهْلٍ فَقَدِمَ مُحَيِّصَةُ فَأَتَى هُوَ وَأَخُوهُ حُوَيِّصَةُ وَعَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ سَهْلٍ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَهَبَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ لِيَتَكَلَّمَ لِمَكَانِهِ مِنْ أَخِيهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ كَبِّرْ كَبِّرْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَتَكَلَّمَ حُوَيِّصَةُ وَمُحَيِّصَةُ فَذَكَرَا شَأْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سَهْلٍ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَتَحْلِفُونَ خَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا وَتَسْتَحِقُّونَ دَمَ صَاحِبِكُمْ أَوْ قَاتِلِكُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَمْ نَشْهَدْ وَلَمْ نَحْضُرْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ فَتُبْرِئُكُمْ يَهُودُ بِخَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ كَيْفَ نَقْبَلُ أَيْمَانَ قَوْمٍ كُفَّارٍ قَالَ يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ فَزَعَمَ بُشَيْرُ بْنُ يَسَارٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَدَاهُ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا وَالَّذِي سَمِعْتُ مِمَّنْ أَرْضَى فِي الْقَسَامَةِ وَالَّذِي اجْتَمَعَتْ عَلَيْهِ الأَئِمَّةُ فِي الْقَدِيمِ وَالْحَدِيثِ أَنْ يَبْدَأَ بِالأَيْمَانِ الْمُدَّعُونَ فِي الْقَسَامَةِ فَيَحْلِفُونَ وَأَنَّ الْقَسَامَةَ لاَ تَجِبُ إِلاَّ بِأَحَدِ أَمْرَيْنِ إِمَّا أَنْ يَقُولَ الْمَقْتُولُ دَمِي عِنْدَ فُلاَنٍ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ وُلاَةُ الدَّمِ بِلَوْثٍ مِنْ بَيِّنَةٍ وَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ قَاطِعَةً عَلَى الَّذِي يُدَّعَى عَلَيْهِ الدَّمُ فَهَذَا يُوجِبُ الْقَسَامَةَ لِلْمُدَّعِينَ الدَّمَ عَلَى مَنِ ادَّعَوْهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلاَ تَجِبُ الْقَسَامَةُ عِنْدَنَا إِلاَّ بِأَحَدِ هَذَيْنِ الْوَجْهَيْنِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَتِلْكَ السُّنَّةُ الَّتِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهَا عِنْدَنَا وَالَّذِي لَمْ يَزَلْ عَلَيْهِ عَمَلُ النَّاسِ أَنَّ الْمُبَدَّئِينَ بِالْقَسَامَةِ أَهْلُ الدَّمِ وَالَّذِينَ يَدَّعُونَهُ فِي الْعَمْدِ وَالْخَطَإِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَقَدْ بَدَّأَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْحَارِثِيِّينَ فِي قَتْلِ صَاحِبِهِمُ الَّذِي قُتِلَ بِخَيْبَرَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ حَلَفَ الْمُدَّعُونَ اسْتَحَقُّوا دَمَ صَاحِبِهِمْ وَقَتَلُوا مَنْ حَلَفُوا عَلَيْهِ وَلاَ يُقْتَلُ فِي الْقَسَامَةِ إِلاَّ وَاحِدٌ لاَ يُقْتَلُ فِيهَا اثْنَانِ يَحْلِفُ مِنْ وُلاَةِ الدَّمِ خَمْسُونَ رَجُلاً خَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا فَإِنْ قَلَّ عَدَدُهُمْ أَوْ نَكَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ رُدَّتِ الأَيْمَانُ عَلَيْهِمْ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَنْكُلَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ وُلاَةِ الْمَقْتُولِ وُلاَةِ الدَّمِ الَّذِينَ يَجُوزُ لَهُمُ الْعَفْوُ عَنْهُ فَإِنْ نَكَلَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أُولَئِكَ فَلاَ سَبِيلَ إِلَى الدَّمِ إِذَا نَكَلَ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا تُرَدُّ الأَيْمَانُ عَلَى مَنْ بَقِيَ مِنْهُمْ إِذَا نَكَلَ أَحَدٌ مِمَّنْ لاَ يَجُوزُ لَهُ عَفْوٌ فَإِنْ نَكَلَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ وُلاَةِ الدَّمِ الَّذِينَ يَجُوزُ لَهُمُ الْعَفْوُ عَنِ الدَّمِ وَإِنْ كَانَ وَاحِدًا فَإِنَّ الأَيْمَانَ لاَ تُرَدُّ عَلَى مَنْ بَقِيَ مِنْ وُلاَةِ الدَّمِ إِذَا نَكَلَ أَحَدٌ مِنْهُمْ عَنِ الأَيْمَانِ وَلَكِنِ الأَيْمَانُ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ تُرَدُّ عَلَى الْمُدَّعَى عَلَيْهِمْ فَيَحْلِفُ مِنْهُمْ خَمْسُونَ رَجُلاً خَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا فَإِنْ لَمْ يَبْلُغُوا خَمْسِينَ رَجُلاً رُدَّتِ الأَيْمَانُ عَلَى مَنْ حَلَفَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوجَدْ أَحَدٌ إِلاَّ الَّذِي ادُّعِيَ عَلَيْهِ حَلَفَ هُوَ خَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا وَبَرِئَ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا فُرِقَ بَيْنَ الْقَسَامَةِ فِي الدَّمِ وَالأَيْمَانِ فِي الْحُقُوقِ أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا دَايَنَ الرَّجُلَ اسْتَثْبَتَ عَلَيْهِ فِي حَقِّهِ وَأَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا أَرَادَ قَتْلَ الرَّجُلِ لَمْ يَقْتُلْهُ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَإِنَّمَا يَلْتَمِسُ الْخَلْوَةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَلَوْ لَمْ تَكُنِ الْقَسَامَةُ إِلاَّ فِيمَا تَثْبُتُ فِيهِ الْبَيِّنَةُ وَلَوْ عُمِلَ فِيهَا كَمَا يُعْمَلُ فِي الْحُقُوقِ هَلَكَتِ الدِّمَاءُ وَاجْتَرَأَ النَّاسُ عَلَيْهَا إِذَا عَرَفُوا الْقَضَاءَ فِيهَا وَلَكِنْ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَتِ الْقَسَامَةُ إِلَى وُلاَةِ الْمَقْتُولِ يُبَدَّءُونَ بِهَا فِيهَا لِيَكُفَّ النَّاسُ عَنِ الدَّمِ وَلِيَحْذَرَ الْقَاتِلُ أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ فِي مِثْلِ ذَلِكَ بِقَوْلِ الْمَقْتُولِ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى وَقَدْ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْقَوْمِ يَكُونُ لَهُمُ الْعَدُوُّ يُتَّهَمُونَ بِالدَّمِ فَيَرُدُّ وُلاَةُ الْمَقْتُولِ الأَيْمَانَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَهُمْ نَفَرٌ لَهُمْ عَدَدٌ أَنَّهُ يَحْلِفُ كُلُّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ خَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا وَلاَ تُقْطَعُ الأَيْمَانُ عَلَيْهِمْ بِقَدْرِ عَدَدِهِمْ وَلاَ يَبْرَءُونَ دُونَ أَنْ يَحْلِفَ كُلُّ إِنْسَانٍ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ خَمْسِينَ يَمِينًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَالْقَسَامَةُ تَصِيرُ إِلَى عَصَبَةِ الْمَقْتُولِ وَهُمْ وُلاَةُ الدَّمِ الَّذِينَ يَقْسِمُونَ عَلَيْهِ وَالَّذِينَ يُقْتَلُ بِقَسَامَتِهِمْ ‏.‏

Yahya said from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Bushayr ibn Yasarinformed him that Abdullah ibn Sahl al-Ansari and Muhayyisa ibn Masudwent out to Khaybar, and they separated on their various businessesand Abdullah ibn Sahl was killed. Muhayyisa, and his brother Huwayyisaand Abd ar-Rahman ibn Sahl went to the Prophet, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, and Abd ar-Rahman began to speak before hisbrother. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, "The older first, the older first. ThereforeHuwayyisa and then Muhayyisa spoke and mentioned the affair ofAbdullah ibn Sahl. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, said to them, "Do you swear with fifty oaths andclaim the blood-money of your companion or the life of the murderer?"They said, "Messenger of Allah, we did not see it and we were notpresent." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, "Will you acquit the jews for fifty oaths?' They said,"Messenger of Allah, how can we accept the oaths of a people who arekafirun?" Yahya ibn Said said, "Bushayr ibn Yasar claimedthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,paid the blood-money from his own property." Malik said, "Thegenerally agreed on way of doing things in our community and thatwhich I heard from whoever I am content with, concerning the oath ofqasama, and upon which the past and present imams agree, is that thosewho claim revenge begin with the oaths and swear. The oath for revengeis only obligatory in two situations. Either the slain person says,'My blood is against so-and-so,' or the relatives entitled to theblood bring a partial proof of it that is not irrefutable against theone who is the object of the blood-claim. This obliges taking an oathon the part of those who claim the blood against those who are theobject of the blood-claim. With us, swearing is only obliged in thesetwo situations." Malik said, "That is the sunna in whichthere is no dispute with us and which is still the behaviour of thepeople. The people who claim blood begin the swearings, whether it isan intentional killing or an accident." Malik said, "TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, beganwith Banu Harith in the case of the killing of their kinsman murderedat Khaybar." Malik said, "If those who make the claim swear,they deserve the blood of their kinsman and whoever they swear againstis slain. Only one man can be killed in the qasama. Two cannot bekilled in it. Fifty men from the blood-relatives must swear fiftyoaths. If their number is less or some of them draw back, they canrepeat their oaths, unless one of the relatives of the murdered manwho deserves blood and who is permitted to pardon it, draws back. Ifone of these draws back, there is no way to revenge." Yahyasaid that Malik said, "The oaths can be made by those of them whoremain if one of them draws back who is not permitted to pardon. Ifone of the blood-relatives draws back who is permitted to pardon, evenif he is only one, more oaths can not be made after that by the blood-relatives. If that occurs, the oaths can be on behalf of the oneagainst whom the claim is made. So fifty of the men of his peopleswear fifty oaths. If there are not fifty men, more oaths can be madeby those of them who already swore. If there is only the defendant, heswears fifty oaths and is acquitted." Yahya said that Maliksaid, "One distinguishes between swearing for blood and oaths forone's rights. When a man has a money-claim against another man, heseeks to verify his due. When a man wants to kill another man, he doesnot kill him in the midst of people. He keeps to a place away frompeople. Had there only been swearing in cases where there is a clearproof and had one acted in it as one acts about one's rights (i.e.needing witnesses), the right of blood retribution would have beenlost and people would have been swift to take advantage of it whenthey learned of the decision on it. However, the relatives of themurdered man were allowed to initiate swearing so that people mightrestrain themselves from blood and the murderer might beware lest hewas put into a situation like that (i.e. qasama) by the statement ofthe murdered man.' " Yahya said, "Malik said about a peopleof whom a certain number are suspected of murder and the relatives ofthe murdered man ask them to take oaths and they are numerous, so theyask that each man swears fifty oaths on his own behalf. The oaths arenot divided out between them according to their number and they arenot acquitted unless each man among them swears fifty oaths on his ownbehalf." Malik said, "This is the best I have heard about thematter." He said, "Swearing goes to the paternal relatives ofthe slain. They are the blood-relatives who swear against the killerand by whose swearing he is killed." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 44 Hadith no 1600
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 44 Hadith no 2



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