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Muwatta Imam Malik

Fara'id

كتاب الفرائض

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنَ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، كَتَبَ إِلَى زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ يَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ الْجَدِّ، فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ إِنَّكَ كَتَبْتَ إِلَىَّ تَسْأَلُنِي عَنِ الْجَدِّ، وَاللَّهُ، أَعْلَمُ وَذَلِكَ مِمَّا لَمْ يَكُنْ يَقْضِي فِيهِ إِلاَّ الأُمَرَاءُ - يَعْنِي الْخُلَفَاءَ - وَقَدْ حَضَرْتُ الْخَلِيفَتَيْنِ قَبْلَكَ يُعْطِيَانِهِ النِّصْفَ مَعَ الأَخِ الْوَاحِدِ وَالثُّلُثَ مَعَ الاِثْنَيْنِ فَإِنْ كَثُرَتِ الإِخْوَةُ لَمْ يُنَقِّصُوهُ مِنَ الثُّلُثِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that he hadheard that Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan wrote to Zayd ibn Thabit asking himabout the grandfather. Zayd ibn Thabit wrote to him, "You have writtento me asking me about the grandfather. Allah knows best. That is partof what is only determined by the amirs, i.e. the khalifs. I waspresent with two khalifs before you who gave the grandfather a halfwith one sibling, and a third with two. If there were more siblings,they did not decrease his third." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1077
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ قَبِيصَةَ بْنِ ذُؤَيْبٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، فَرَضَ لِلْجَدِّ الَّذِي يَفْرِضُ النَّاسُ لَهُ الْيَوْمَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Qabisa ibnDhu'ayba that Umar ibn al-Khattab gave the grandfather "what peoplegive him today." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1078
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 2


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ فَرَضَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ وَعُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَفَّانَ وَزَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ لِلْجَدِّ مَعَ الإِخْوَةِ الثُّلُثَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا وَالَّذِي أَدْرَكْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَهْلَ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا أَنَّ الْجَدَّ أَبَا الأَبِ لاَ يَرِثُ مَعَ الأَبِ دِنْيَا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ يُفْرَضُ لَهُ مَعَ الْوَلَدِ الذَّكَرِ وَمَعَ ابْنِ الاِبْنِ الذَّكَرِ السُّدُسُ فَرِيضَةً وَهُوَ فِيمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ مَا لَمْ يَتْرُكِ الْمُتَوَفَّى أَخًا أَوْ أُخْتًا لأَبِيهِ يُبَدَّأُ بِأَحَدٍ إِنْ شَرَّكَهُ بِفَرِيضَةٍ مُسَمَّاةٍ فَيُعْطَوْنَ فَرَائِضَهُمْ فَإِنْ فَضَلَ مِنَ الْمَالِ السُّدُسُ فَمَا فَوْقَهُ فُرِضَ لِلْجَدِّ السُّدُسُ فَرِيضَةً ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالْجَدُّ وَالإِخْوَةُ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ إِذَا شَرَّكَهُمْ أَحَدٌ بِفَرِيضَةٍ مُسَمَّاةٍ يُبَدَّأُ بِمَنْ شَرَّكَهُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْفَرَائِضِ فَيُعْطَوْنَ فَرَائِضَهُمْ فَمَا بَقِيَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ لِلْجَدِّ وَالإِخْوَةِ مِنْ شَىْءٍ فَإِنَّهُ يُنْظَرُ أَىُّ ذَلِكَ أَفْضَلُ لِحَظِّ الْجَدِّ أُعْطِيَهُ الثُّلُثُ مِمَّا بَقِيَ لَهُ وَلِلإِخْوَةِ أَوْ يَكُونُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الإِخْوَةِ فِيمَا يَحْصُلُ لَهُ وَلَهُمْ يُقَاسِمُهُمْ بِمِثْلِ حِصَّةِ أَحَدِهِمْ أَوِ السُّدُسُ مِنْ رَأْسِ الْمَالِ كُلِّهِ أَىُّ ذَلِكَ كَانَ أَفْضَلَ لِحَظِّ الْجَدِّ أُعْطِيَهُ الْجَدُّ وَكَانَ مَا بَقِيَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ لِلإِخْوَةِ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنْثَيَيْنِ إِلاَّ فِي فَرِيضَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ تَكُونُ قِسْمَتُهُمْ فِيهَا عَلَى غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ وَتِلْكَ الْفَرِيضَةُ امْرَأَةٌ تُوُفِّيَتْ وَتَرَكَتْ زَوْجَهَا وَأُمَّهَا وَأُخْتَهَا لأُمِّهَا وَأَبِيهَا وَجَدَّهَا فَلِلزَّوْجِ النِّصْفُ وَلِلأُمِّ الثُّلُثُ وَلِلْجَدِّ السُّدُسُ وَلِلأُخْتِ لِلأُمِّ وَالأَبِ النِّصْفُ ثُمَّ يُجْمَعُ سُدُسُ الْجَدِّ وَنِصْفُ الأُخْتِ فَيُقْسَمُ أَثْلاَثًا لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنْثَيَيْنِ فَيَكُونُ لِلْجَدِّ ثُلُثَاهُ وَلِلأُخْتِ ثُلُثُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِيرَاثُ الإِخْوَةِ لِلأَبِ مَعَ الْجَدِّ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ مَعَهُمْ إِخْوَةٌ لأَبٍ وَأُمٍّ كَمِيرَاثِ الإِخْوَةِ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ سَوَاءٌ ذَكَرُهُمْ كَذَكَرِهِمْ وَأُنْثَاهُمْ كَأُنْثَاهُمْ فَإِذَا اجْتَمَعَ الإِخْوَةُ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ وَالإِخْوَةُ لِلأَبِ فَإِنَّ الإِخْوَةَ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ يُعَادُّونَ الْجَدَّ بِإِخْوَتِهِمْ لأَبِيهِمْ فَيَمْنَعُونَهُ بِهِمْ كَثْرَةَ الْمِيرَاثِ بِعَدَدِهِمْ وَلاَ يُعَادُّونَهُ بِالإِخْوَةِ لِلأُمِّ لأَنَّهُ لَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مَعَ الْجَدِّ غَيْرُهُمْ لَمْ يَرِثُوا مَعَهُ شَيْئًا وَكَانَ الْمَالُ كُلُّهُ لِلْجَدِّ فَمَا حَصَلَ لِلإِخْوَةِ مِنْ بَعْدِ حَظِّ الْجَدِّ فَإِنَّهُ يَكُونُ لِلإِخْوَةِ مِنَ الأَبِ وَالأُمِّ دُونَ الإِخْوَةِ لِلأَبِ وَلاَ يَكُونُ لِلإِخْوَةِ لِلأَبِ مَعَهُمْ شَىْءٌ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ الإِخْوَةُ لِلأَبِ وَالأُمِّ امْرَأَةً وَاحِدَةً فَإِنْ كَانَتِ امْرَأَةً وَاحِدَةً فَإِنَّهَا تُعَادُّ الْجَدَّ بِإِخْوَتِهَا لأَبِيهَا مَا كَانُوا فَمَا حَصَلَ لَهُمْ وَلَهَا مِنْ شَىْءٍ كَانَ لَهَا دُونَهُمْ مَا بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ أَنْ تَسْتَكْمِلَ فَرِيضَتَهَا وَفَرِيضَتُهَا النِّصْفُ مِنْ رَأْسِ الْمَالِ كُلِّهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ فِيمَا يُحَازُ لَهَا وَلإِخْوَتِهَا لأَبِيهَا فَضْلٌ عَنْ نِصْفِ رَأْسِ الْمَالِ كُلِّهِ فَهُوَ لإِخْوَتِهَا لأَبِيهَا لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الأُنْثَيَيْنِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَفْضُلْ شَىْءٌ فَلاَ شَىْءَ لَهُمْ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Sulaymanibn Yasar said, ''Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, andZayd ibnThabit gave the grandfather a third with full siblings". Malik said,"The generally agreed on way of doing things among us and what I haveseen the people of knowledge in our city doing is that the paternalgrandfather does not inherit anything at all with the father. He isgiven a sixth as a fixed share with the son and the grandson through ason. Other than that, when the deceased does not leave a mother or apaternal aunt, one begins with whoever has a fixed share, and they aregiven their shares. If there is a sixth of the property left over, thegrandfather is given a sixth as a fixed share." Malik said,"When someone shares with the grandfather and the full siblings in aspecified share, one begins with whoever shares with them of thepeople of fixed shares. They are given their shares. What is left overafter that belongs to the grandfather and the full siblings. Then onesees which is the more favourable of two alternatives for the portionof the grandfather. Either a third is allotted to him and the siblingsto divide between them, and he gets a share as if he were one of thesiblings, or else he takes a sixth from all the capital. Whichever isthe best portion for the grandfather is given to him. What is leftafter that, goes to the full siblings. The male gets the portion oftwo females except in one particular case. The division in this caseis different from the preceding one. This case is when a woman diesand leaves a husband, mother, full sister and grandfather. The husbandgets a half, the mother gets a third, the grandfather gets a sixth,and the full sister gets a half. The sixth of the grandfather and thehalf of the sister are joined and divided into thirds. The male getsthe share of two females. Therefore, the grandfather has two thirds,and the sister has one third." Malik said, "The inheritanceof the half-siblings by the father with the grandfather when there areno full siblings with them, is like the inheritance of the fullsiblings (in the same situation). The males are the same as theirmales and the females are the same as their females. When there areboth full siblings and half-siblings by the father, the full siblingsinclude in their number the number of half-siblings by the father, tolimit the inheritance of the grandfather, i.e., if there was only onefull sibling with the grandfather. They would share, after theallotting of the fixed shares, the remainder of the inheritancebetween them equally. If there were also two half-siblings by thefather, their number is added to the division of the sum, which wouldthen be divided four ways. A quarter going to the grandfather andthree-quarters going to the full siblings who annex the sharestechnically allotted to the half-siblings by the father. They do notinclude the number of half-siblings by the mother, because if therewere only half-siblings by the father they would not inherit anythingwith the grandfather and all the capital would belong to thegrandfather, and so the siblings would not get anything after theportion of the grandfather. "It belongs to the full siblingsmore than the half-siblings by the father, and the half-siblings bythe father do not get anything with them unless the full siblingsconsist of one sister. If there is one full sister, she includes thegrandfather with the half-siblings by her father in the division,however many. Whatever remains for her and these half-siblings by thefather goes to her rather than them until she has had her completeshare, which is half of the total capital. If there is surplus beyondhalf of all the capital in what she and the half-siblings by thefather acquire it goes to them. The male has the portion of twofemales. If there is nothing left over, they get nothing." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1079
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 31


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ خَرَشَةَ، عَنْ قَبِيصَةَ بْنِ ذُؤَيْبٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ جَاءَتِ الْجَدَّةُ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ تَسْأَلُهُ مِيرَاثَهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ مَا لَكِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ شَىْءٌ وَمَا عَلِمْتُ لَكِ فِي سُنَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَيْئًا فَارْجِعِي حَتَّى أَسْأَلَ النَّاسَ فَسَأَلَ النَّاسَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ الْمُغِيرَةُ بْنُ شُعْبَةَ حَضَرْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَعْطَاهَا السُّدُسَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ هَلْ مَعَكَ غَيْرُكَ فَقَامَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مَسْلَمَةَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ فَقَالَ مِثْلَ مَا قَالَ الْمُغِيرَةُ فَأَنْفَذَهُ لَهَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقُ ثُمَّ جَاءَتِ الْجَدَّةُ الأُخْرَى إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ تَسْأَلُهُ مِيرَاثَهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا مَا لَكِ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ شَىْءٌ وَمَا كَانَ الْقَضَاءُ الَّذِي قُضِيَ بِهِ إِلاَّ لِغَيْرِكِ وَمَا أَنَا بِزَائِدٍ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ شَيْئًا وَلَكِنَّهُ ذَلِكَ السُّدُسُ فَإِنِ اجْتَمَعْتُمَا فَهُوَ بَيْنَكُمَا وَأَيَّتُكُمَا خَلَتْ بِهِ فَهُوَ لَهَا ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Uthman ibnIshaq ibn Kharasha that Qabisa ibn Dhu'ayb said, "A grandmother cameto Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and asked him for her inheritance. Abu Bakr saidto her, 'You have nothing in the Book of Allah, and I do not know thatyou have anything in the sunna of the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace. Go away therefore, until I havequestioned the people.' (i.e.the Companions). He questioned thepeople, and al-Mughira ibn Shuba said, 'I was present with theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, when hegave the grandmother a sixth.' Abu Bakr said, 'Was there anybody elsewith you?' Muhammad ibn Maslama al-Ansari stood up and said the likeof what al-Mughira said. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq gave it to her. Then theother grandmother came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and asked him for herinheritance. He said to her, "You have nothing in the Book of Allah,and what has been decided is only for other than you, and I am not oneto add to the fixed shares, other than that sixth. If there are two ofyou together, it is between you. If eitherof you is left alone withit, it is hers." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1080
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 4


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ أَتَتِ الْجَدَّتَانِ إِلَى أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ السُّدُسَ، لِلَّتِي مِنْ قِبَلِ الأُمِّ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ أَمَا إِنَّكَ تَتْرُكُ الَّتِي لَوْ مَاتَتْ وَهُوَ حَىٌّ كَانَ إِيَّاهَا يَرِثُ فَجَعَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ السُّدُسَ بَيْنَهُمَا ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that al-Qasimibn Muhammad said, "Two grandmothers came to Abu Bakr asSiddiq, and hewanted to give the sixth to the one who was from the mother's side,and a man of the Ansar said, 'What? Are you omitting the one from whomhe would inherit if she died while he was alive?' Abu Bakr divided thesixth between them.~ Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1081
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 5


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ رَبِّهِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرِ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ، كَانَ لاَ يَفْرِضُ إِلاَّ لِلْجَدَّتَيْنِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ وَالَّذِي أَدْرَكْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَهْلَ الْعِلْمِ بِبَلَدِنَا أَنَّ الْجَدَّةَ أُمَّ الأُمِّ لاَ تَرِثُ مَعَ الأُمِّ دِنْيَا شَيْئًا وَهِيَ فِيمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ يُفْرَضُ لَهَا السُّدُسُ فَرِيضَةً وَأَنَّ الْجَدَّةَ أُمَّ الأَبِ لاَ تَرِثُ مَعَ الأُمِّ وَلاَ مَعَ الأَبِ شَيْئًا وَهِيَ فِيمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ يُفْرَضُ لَهَا السُّدُسُ فَرِيضَةً فَإِذَا اجْتَمَعَتِ الْجَدَّتَانِ أُمُّ الأَبِ وَأُمُّ الأُمِّ وَلَيْسَ لِلْمُتَوَفَّى دُونَهُمَا أَبٌ وَلاَ أُمٌّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ أَنَّ أُمَّ الأُمِّ إِنْ كَانَتْ أَقْعَدَهُمَا كَانَ لَهَا السَّدُسُ دُونَ أُمِّ الأَبِ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ أُمُّ الأَبِ أَقْعَدَهُمَا أَوْ كَانَتَا فِي الْقُعْدَدِ مِنَ الْمُتَوَفَّى بِمَنْزِلَةٍ سَوَاءً فَإِنَّ السُّدُسَ بَيْنَهُمَا نِصْفَانِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ مِيرَاثَ لأَحَدٍ مِنَ الْجَدَّاتِ إِلاَّ لِلْجَدَّتَيْنِ لأَنَّهُ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَرَّثَ الْجَدَّةَ ثُمَّ سَأَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ عَنْ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى أَتَاهُ الثَّبَتُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ وَرَّثَ الْجَدَّةَ فَأَنْفَذَهُ لَهَا ثُمَّ أَتَتِ الْجَدَّةُ الأُخْرَى إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ لَهَا مَا أَنَا بِزَائِدٍ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ شَيْئًا فَإِنِ اجْتَمَعْتُمَا فَهُوَ بَيْنَكُمَا وَأَيَّتُكُمَا خَلَتْ بِهِ فَهُوَ لَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ ثُمَّ لَمْ نَعْلَمْ أَحَدًا وَرَّثَ غَيْرَ جَدَّتَيْنِ مُنْذُ كَانَ الإِسْلاَمُ إِلَى الْيَوْمِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdu Rabbih ibn Said that AbuBakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham only gave a fixedshare to two grandmothers (together). Malik said, "Thegenerally agreed on way of doing things among us in which there is nodispute and which I saw the people of knowledge in our city doing, isthat the maternal grandmother does not inherit anything at all withthe mother. Outside of that, she is given a sixth as a fixed share.The paternal grandmotherdoes not inherit anything along with themother or the father. Outside of that she is given a sixth as a fixedshare." If both the paternal grandmother and maternal grandmother arealive, and the deceased does not have a father or mother outside ofthem, Malik said,."I have heard that if the maternal grandmother isthe nearest of the two of them, then she has a sixth instead of thepaternal grandmother. If the paternal grandmother is nearer, or theyare in the same position in relation to the deceased, the sixth isdivided equally between them." Malik said, "None of thefemale grand-relations except for these two has any inheritancebecause I have heard that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, gave the grandmother inheritance, and then AbuBakr asked about that until someone reliable related from theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, that hehad made the grandmother an heir and given a share to her. Anothergrandmother came to Umar ibn al-Khattab, and he said, 'I am not one toadd to fixed shares. If there are two of you together, it is betweenyou. If either of you is left alone with it, it is hers.' " Maliksaid, "We do not know of anyone who made other than the twograndmothers heirs from the beginning of Islam to this day." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 1082
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 27 Hadith no 6



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