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Muwatta Imam Malik

Business Transactions

كتاب البيوع

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنِ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ تَلَقَّوُا الرُّكْبَانَ لِلْبَيْعِ وَلاَ يَبِعْ بَعْضُكُمْ عَلَى بَيْعِ بَعْضٍ وَلاَ تَنَاجَشُوا وَلاَ يَبِعْ حَاضِرٌ لِبَادٍ وَلاَ تُصَرُّوا الإِبِلَ وَالْغَنَمَ فَمَنِ ابْتَاعَهَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ بِخَيْرِ النَّظَرَيْنِ بَعْدَ أَنْ يَحْلُبَهَا إِنْ رَضِيَهَا أَمْسَكَهَا وَإِنْ سَخِطَهَا رَدَّهَا وَصَاعًا مِنْ تَمْرٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Abu'z-Zinad from al-Araj from AbuHurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, "Do not go out to meet the caravans for trade, do not bidagainst each other, outbidding in order to raise the price, and atownsman must not buy on behalf of a man of the desert, and do not tieup the udders of camels and sheep so that they appear to have a lot ofmilk, for a person who buys them after that has two recourses open tohim after he milks them. If he is pleased with them, he keeps them andif he is displeased with them, he can return them along with a sa ofdates." Malik said, "The explanation of the words of theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, accordingto what we think - and Allah knows best - 'do not bid against eachother,' is that it is forbidden for a man to offer a price over theprice of his brother when the seller has inclined to the bargainer andmade conditions about the weight of the gold and he has declaredhimself not liable for faults and such things by which it isrecognised that the seller wants to make a transaction with thebargainer. This is what he forbade, and Allah knows best." Malik said, "There is no harm, however, in more than one personbidding against each other over goods put up for sale." Hesaid, "Were people to leave off haggling when the first person startedhaggling, an unreal price might be taken and the disapproved wouldenter into the sale of the goods. This is still the way of doingthings among us." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1383
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 97


قَالَ مَالِكٌ عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى عَنِ النَّجْشِ ‏.‏

Malik said, from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messengerof Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade najsh. Malik said, "Najsh is to offer a man more than the worth of hisgoods when you do not mean to buy them and someone else follows you inbidding." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1384
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 98


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، ذَكَرَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ يُخْدَعُ فِي الْبُيُوعِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِذَا بَايَعْتَ فَقُلْ لاَ خِلاَبَةَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَكَانَ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا بَايَعَ يَقُولُ لاَ خِلاَبَةَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar fromAbdullah ibn Umar that a man mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, that he was always being cheatedin business transactions. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless himand grant him peace, said, "When you enter a transaction, say, 'Notrickery.' So whenever that man entered a transaction, he would say,'No trickery.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1385
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 99


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، يَقُولُ إِذَا جِئْتَ أَرْضًا يُوفُونَ الْمِكْيَالَ وَالْمِيزَانَ فَأَطِلِ الْمُقَامَ بِهَا وَإِذَا جِئْتَ أَرْضًا يُنَقِّصُونَ الْمِكْيَالَ وَالْمِيزَانَ فَأَقْلِلِ الْمُقَامَ بِهَا ‏.‏

Malik related to me that Yahya ibn Said heard Said ibn al-Musayyab say, "When you come to a land where they give full measureand full weight, stay there. When you come to a land where theyshorten the measure and weight, then do not stay there very long." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1386
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 100


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ الْمُنْكَدِرِ، يَقُولُ أَحَبَّ اللَّهُ عَبْدًا سَمْحًا إِنْ بَاعَ سَمْحًا إِنِ ابْتَاعَ سَمْحًا إِنْ قَضَى سَمْحًا إِنِ اقْتَضَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَشْتَرِي الإِبِلَ أَوِ الْغَنَمَ أَوِ الْبَزَّ أَوِ الرَّقِيقَ أَوْ شَيْئًا مِنَ الْعُرُوضِ جِزَافًا إِنَّهُ لاَ يَكُونُ الْجِزَافُ فِي شَىْءٍ مِمَّا يُعَدُّ عَدًّا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُعْطِي الرَّجُلَ السِّلْعَةَ يَبِيعُهَا لَهُ وَقَدْ قَوَّمَهَا صَاحِبُهَا قِيمَةً فَقَالَ إِنْ بِعْتَهَا بِهَذَا الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي أَمَرْتُكَ بِهِ فَلَكَ دِينَارٌ - أَوْ شَىْءٌ يُسَمِّيهِ لَهُ يَتَرَاضَيَانِ عَلَيْهِ - وَإِنْ لَمْ تَبِعْهَا فَلَيْسَ لَكَ شَىْءٌ إِنَّهُ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ إِذَا سَمَّى ثَمَنًا يَبِيعُهَا بِهِ وَسَمَّى أَجْرًا مَعْلُومًا إِذَا بَاعَ أَخَذَهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَبِعْ فَلاَ شَىْءَ لَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِثْلُ ذَلِكَ أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ إِنْ قَدَرْتَ عَلَى غُلاَمِي الآبِقِ أَوْ جِئْتَ بِجَمَلِي الشَّارِدِ فَلَكَ كَذَا ‏.‏ فَهَذَا مِنْ بَابِ الْجُعْلِ وَلَيْسَ مِنْ بَابِ الإِجَارَةِ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ بَابِ الإِجَارَةِ لَمْ يَصْلُحْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَأَمَّا الرَّجُلُ يُعْطَى السِّلْعَةَ فَيُقَالُ لَهُ بِعْهَا وَلَكَ كَذَا وَكَذَا فِي كُلِّ دِينَارٍ ‏.‏ لِشَىْءٍ يُسَمِّيهِ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ كُلَّمَا نَقَصَ دِينَارٌ مِنْ ثَمَنِ السِّلْعَةِ نَقَصَ مِنْ حَقِّهِ الَّذِي سَمَّى لَهُ فَهَذَا غَرَرٌ لاَ يَدْرِي كَمْ جَعَلَ لَهُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said that he heard Muhammadibn al-Munkadir say, "Allah loves his slave who is generous when hesells, and generous when he buys, generous when he repays, andgenerous when he is repaid." Malik said about a man whobought camels or sheep or dry goods or slaves or any goods withoutmeasuring precisely, "There is no buying without measuring preciselyin anything which can be counted . " Malik said about a manwho gave a man goods to sell for him and set their price saying, "Ifyou sell them for this price as I have ordered you to do, you willhave a dinar (or something which he has specified, which they are bothsatisfied with), if you do not sell them, you will have nothing,""There is no harm in that when he names a price to sell them at andnames a known fee. If he sells the goods, he takes the fee, and if hedoes not sell them, he has nothing." Malik said, "This islike saying to another man, 'If you capture my runaway slave or bringmy stray camel, you will have such-and-such.' This is from thecategory of reward, and not from the category of giving a wage. Had itbeen from the category of giving a wage, it would not be good." Malik said, "As for a man who is given goods and told that if hesells them he will have a named percentage for every dinar, that isnot good because whenever he is a dinar less than the price of thegoods, he decreases the due which was named for him. This is anuncertain transaction. He does not know how much he will be given." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1387
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 101


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ، يَتَكَارَى الدَّابَّةَ ثُمَّ يُكْرِيهَا بِأَكْثَرَ مِمَّا تَكَارَاهَا بِهِ فَقَالَ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he asked Ibn Shihab about a man whohired an animal, and then re-hired it out for more than what he hiredit for. He said, "There is no harm in that." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1388
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 102



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