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Muwatta Imam Malik

Business Transactions

كتاب البيوع

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، يَقُولُ قَطْعُ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ مِنَ الْفَسَادِ فِي الأَرْضِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ الرَّجُلُ الذَّهَبَ بِالْفِضَّةِ وَالْفِضَّةَ بِالذَّهَبِ جِزَافًا إِذَا كَانَ تِبْرًا أَوْ حَلْيًا قَدْ صِيغَ فَأَمَّا الدَّرَاهِمُ الْمَعْدُودَةُ وَالدَّنَانِيرُ الْمَعْدُودَةُ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لأَحَدٍ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ ذَلِكَ جِزَافًا حَتَّى يُعْلَمَ وَيُعَدَّ فَإِنِ اشْتُرِيَ ذَلِكَ جِزَافًا فَإِنَّمَا يُرَادُ بِهِ الْغَرَرُ حِينَ يُتْرَكُ عَدُّهُ وَيُشْتَرَى جِزَافًا وَلَيْسَ هَذَا مِنْ بُيُوعِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَأَمَّا مَا كَانَ يُوزَنُ مِنَ التِّبْرِ وَالْحَلْىِ فَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُبَاعَ ذَلِكَ جِزَافًا وَإِنَّمَا ابْتِيَاعُ ذَلِكَ جِزَافًا كَهَيْئَةِ الْحِنْطَةِ وَالتَّمْرِ وَنَحْوِهِمَا مِنَ الأَطْعِمَةِ الَّتِي تُبَاعُ جِزَافًا وَمِثْلُهَا يُكَالُ فَلَيْسَ بِابْتِيَاعِ ذَلِكَ جِزَافًا بَأْسٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنِ اشْتَرَى مُصْحَفًا أَوْ سَيْفًا أَوْ خَاتَمًا وَفِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ ذَهَبٌ أَوْ فِضَّةٌ بِدَنَانِيرَ أَوْ دَرَاهِمَ فَإِنَّ مَا اشْتُرِيَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَفِيهِ الذَّهَبُ بِدَنَانِيرَ فَإِنَّهُ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى قِيمَتِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ قِيمَةُ ذَلِكَ الثُّلُثَيْنِ وَقِيمَةُ مَا فِيهِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ الثُّلُثَ فَذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ لاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ وَلاَ يَكُونُ فِيهِ تَأْخِيرٌ وَمَا اشْتُرِيَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ بِالْوَرِقِ مِمَّا فِيهِ الْوَرِقُ نُظِرَ إِلَى قِيمَتِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ قِيمَةُ ذَلِكَ الثُّلُثَيْنِ وَقِيمَةُ مَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَرِقِ الثُّلُثَ فَذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ لاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ وَلَمْ يَزَلْ ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَمْرِ النَّاسِ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that Yahya ibn Said heard Said ibnal-Musayyab say, "Keeping gold and silver out of circulation is partof working corruption in the land." Malik said, "There is noharm in buying gold with silver or silver with gold without measuringif it is unminted or a piece of jewellery which has been made. Counteddirhams and counted dinars should not be bought without reckoninguntil they are known and counted. To abandon number and buy them atrandom would only be to speculate. That is not part of the businesstransactions of Muslims. As for what is weighed of unminted objectsand jewellery, there is no harm in buying such things withoutmeasuring. To buy them without measuring is like buying wheat, drieddates, and such food-stuffs, which are sold without measuring, eventhough things like them are measured " Malik spoke aboutbuying a Qur'an, a sword or a signet ring which had some gold orsilver work on it with dinars or dirhams. He said, "The value of theobject bought with dinars, which has gold in it is looked at. If thevalue of the gold is up to one-third of the price, it is permitted andthere is no harm in it if the sale is hand to hand and there is nodeferment in it. When something is bought with silver which has silverin it, the value is looked at. If the value of the silver is one-third, it is permitted and there is no harm in it if the sale is handto hand. That is still the way of doing things among us." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1329
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 37


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ مَالِكِ بْنِ أَوْسِ بْنِ الْحَدَثَانِ النَّصْرِيِّ، أَنَّهُ الْتَمَسَ صَرْفًا بِمِائَةِ دِينَارٍ قَالَ فَدَعَانِي طَلْحَةُ بْنُ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ فَتَرَاوَضْنَا حَتَّى اصْطَرَفَ مِنِّي وَأَخَذَ الذَّهَبَ يُقَلِّبُهَا فِي يَدِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَنِي خَازِنِي مِنَ الْغَابَةِ ‏.‏ وَعُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ يَسْمَعُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَاللَّهِ لاَ تُفَارِقْهُ حَتَّى تَأْخُذَ مِنْهُ - ثُمَّ قَالَ - قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ الذَّهَبُ بِالْوَرِقِ رِبًا إِلاَّ هَاءَ وَهَاءَ وَالْبُرُّ بِالْبُرِّ رِبًا إِلاَّ هَاءَ وَهَاءَ وَالتَّمْرُ بِالتَّمْرِ رِبًا إِلاَّ هَاءَ وَهَاءَ وَالشَّعِيرُ بِالشَّعِيرِ رِبًا إِلاَّ هَاءَ وَهَاءَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Malik ibn Ausibn al-Hadathan an-Nasri that one time he asked to exchange 100dinars. He said, "Talha ibn Ubaydullah called me over and we made amutual agreement that he would make an exchange for me. He took thegold and turned it about in his hand, and then said, 'I can't do ituntil my treasurer brings the money to me from al-Ghaba.' Umar ibn al-Khattab was listening and Umar said, 'By Allah! Do not leave him untilyou have taken it from him!' Then he said, 'The Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Gold for silver isusury except hand to hand. Wheat for wheat is usury except hand tohand. Dates for dates is usury except hand to hand. Barley for barleyis usury except hand to hand." "' Malik said, "When a manbuys dirhams with dinars and then finds a bad dirham among them andwants to return it, the exchange of the dinars breaks down, and hereturns the silver and takes back his dinars. The explanation of whatis disapproved of in that is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, said, 'Gold for silver is usury excepthand to hand.' and Umar ibn al-Khattab said, 'If someone asks you towait to be paid until he has gone back to his house, do not leavehim.' When he returns a dirham to him from the exchange after he hasleft him, it is like a debt or something deferred. For that reason, itis disapproved of, and the exchange collapses. Umar ibn al-Khattabwanted that all gold, silver and food should not be sold for goods tobe paid later. He did not want there to be any delay or deferment inany such sale, whether it involved one commodity or different sorts ofcommodities." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1330
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 38


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ قُسَيْطٍ، أَنَّهُ رَأَى سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ يُرَاطِلُ الذَّهَبَ بِالذَّهَبِ فَيُفْرِغُ ذَهَبَهُ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ وَيُفْرِغُ صَاحِبُهُ الَّذِي يُرَاطِلُهُ ذَهَبَهُ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ الأُخْرَى فَإِذَا اعْتَدَلَ لِسَانُ الْمِيزَانِ أَخَذَ وَأَعْطَى ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي بَيْعِ الذَّهَبِ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ بِالْوَرِقِ مُرَاطَلَةً أَنَّهُ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ دِينَارًا بِعَشَرَةِ دَنَانِيرَ يَدًا بِيَدٍ إِذَا كَانَ وَزْنُ الذَّهَبَيْنِ سَوَاءً عَيْنًا بِعَيْنٍ وَإِنْ تَفَاضَلَ الْعَدَدُ وَالدَّرَاهِمُ أَيْضًا فِي ذَلِكَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الدَّنَانِيرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ رَاطَلَ ذَهَبًا بِذَهَبٍ أَوْ وَرِقًا بِوَرِقٍ فَكَانَ بَيْنَ الذَّهَبَيْنِ فَضْلُ مِثْقَالٍ فَأَعْطَى صَاحِبَهُ قِيمَتَهُ مِنَ الْوَرِقِ أَوْ مِنْ غَيْرِهَا فَلاَ يَأْخُذُهُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ قَبِيحٌ وَذَرِيعَةٌ إِلَى الرِّبَا لأَنَّهُ إِذَا جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْمِثْقَالَ بِقِيمَتِهِ حَتَّى كَأَنَّهُ اشْتَرَاهُ عَلَى حِدَتِهِ جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ الْمِثْقَالَ بِقِيمَتِهِ مِرَارًا لأَنْ يُجِيزَ ذَلِكَ الْبَيْعَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ صَاحِبِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُ بَاعَهُ ذَلِكَ الْمِثْقَالَ مُفْرَدًا لَيْسَ مَعَهُ غَيْرُهُ لَمْ يَأْخُذْهُ بِعُشْرِ الثَّمَنِ الَّذِي أَخَذَهُ بِهِ لأَنْ يُجَوِّزَ لَهُ الْبَيْعَ فَذَلِكَ الذَّرِيعَةُ إِلَى إِحْلاَلِ الْحَرَامِ وَالأَمْرُ الْمَنْهِيُّ عَنْهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يُرَاطِلُ الرَّجُلَ وَيُعْطِيهِ الذَّهَبَ الْعُتُقَ الْجِيَادَ وَيَجْعَلُ مَعَهَا تِبْرًا ذَهَبًا غَيْرَ جَيِّدَةٍ وَيَأْخُذُ مِنْ صَاحِبِهِ ذَهَبًا كُوفِيَّةً مُقَطَّعَةً وَتِلْكَ الْكُوفِيَّةُ مَكْرُوهَةٌ عِنْدَ النَّاسِ فَيَتَبَايَعَانِ ذَلِكَ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَتَفْسِيرُ مَا كُرِهَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ صَاحِبَ الذَّهَبِ الْجِيَادِ أَخَذَ فَضْلَ عُيُونِ ذَهَبِهِ فِي التِّبْرِ الَّذِي طَرَحَ مَعَ ذَهَبِهِ وَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ ذَهَبِهِ عَلَى ذَهَبِ صَاحِبِهِ لَمْ يُرَاطِلْهُ صَاحِبُهُ بِتِبْرِهِ ذَلِكَ إِلَى ذَهَبِهِ الْكُوفِيَّةِ فَامْتَنَعَ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبْتَاعَ ثَلاَثَةَ أَصْوُعٍ مِنْ تَمْرٍ عَجْوَةٍ بِصَاعَيْنِ وَمُدٍّ مِنْ تَمْرٍ كَبِيسٍ فَقِيلَ لَهُ هَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ ‏.‏ فَجَعَلَ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ كَبِيسٍ وَصَاعًا مِنْ حَشَفٍ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُجِيزَ بِذَلِكَ بَيْعَهُ فَذَلِكَ لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ صَاحِبُ الْعَجْوَةِ لِيُعْطِيَهُ صَاعًا مِنَ الْعَجْوَةِ بِصَاعٍ مِنْ حَشَفٍ وَلَكِنَّهُ إِنَّمَا أَعْطَاهُ ذَلِكَ لِفَضْلِ الْكَبِيسِ أَوْ أَنْ يَقُولَ الرَّجُلُ لِلرَّجُلِ بِعْنِي ثَلاَثَةَ أَصْوُعٍ مِنَ الْبَيْضَاءِ بِصَاعَيْنِ وَنِصْفٍ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ شَامِيَّةٍ فَيَقُولُ هَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ ‏.‏ فَيَجْعَلُ صَاعَيْنِ مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ شَامِيَّةٍ وَصَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يُجِيزَ بِذَلِكَ الْبَيْعَ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَهَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُعْطِيَهُ بِصَاعٍ مِنْ شَعِيرٍ صَاعًا مِنْ حِنْطَةٍ بَيْضَاءَ لَوْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ الصَّاعُ مُفْرَدًا وَإِنَّمَا أَعْطَاهُ إِيَّاهُ لِفَضْلِ الشَّامِيَّةِ عَلَى الْبَيْضَاءِ فَهَذَا لاَ يَصْلُحُ وَهُوَ مِثْلُ مَا وَصَفْنَا مِنَ التِّبْرِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَكُلُّ شَىْءٍ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ وَالطَّعَامِ كُلِّهِ الَّذِي لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُبَاعَ إِلاَّ مِثْلاً بِمِثْلٍ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُجْعَلَ مَعَ الصِّنْفِ الْجَيِّدِ مِنَ الْمَرْغُوبِ فِيهِ الشَّىْءُ الرَّدِيءُ الْمَسْخُوطُ لِيُجَازَ الْبَيْعُ وَلِيُسْتَحَلَّ بِذَلِكَ مَا نُهِيَ عَنْهُ مِنَ الأَمْرِ الَّذِي لاَ يَصْلُحُ إِذَا جُعِلَ ذَلِكَ مَعَ الصِّنْفِ الْمَرْغُوبِ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ صَاحِبُ ذَلِكَ أَنْ يُدْرِكَ بِذَلِكَ فَضْلَ جَوْدَةِ مَا يَبِيعُ فَيُعْطِيَ الشَّىْءَ الَّذِي لَوْ أَعْطَاهُ وَحْدَهُ لَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَلَمْ يَهْمُمْ بِذَلِكَ وَإِنَّمَا يَقْبَلُهُ مِنْ أَجْلِ الَّذِي يَأْخُذُ مَعَهُ لِفَضْلِ سِلْعَةِ صَاحِبِهِ عَلَى سِلْعَتِهِ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي لِشَىْءٍ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ وَالطَّعَامِ أَنْ يَدْخُلَهُ شَىْءٌ مِنْ هَذِهِ الصِّفَةِ فَإِنْ أَرَادَ صَاحِبُ الطَّعَامِ الرَّدِيءِ أَنْ يَبِيعَهُ بِغَيْرِهِ فَلْيَبِعْهُ عَلَى حِدَتِهِ وَلاَ يَجْعَلْ مَعَ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِهِ إِذَا كَانَ كَذَلِكَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn Qusaytsaw Said ibn al-Musayyab sell gold counterpoising for gold. He pouredhis gold into one pan of the scales, and the man with whom he wascounterpoising put his gold in the other pan of the scale and when thetongue of the scales was balanced, they took and gave. Maliksaid, "According to the way things are done among us there is no harmin selling gold for gold, and silver for silver by counterpoisingweight, even if 11 dinars are taken for 10 dinars hand to hand, whenthe weight of gold is equal, coin for coin, even if the number isdifferent. Dirhams in such a situation are treated the same way asdinars." Malik said, "If, when counterpoising gold for goldor silver for silver, there is a difference of weight, one partyshould not give the other the value of the difference in silver orsomething else. Such a transaction is ugly and a means to usurybecause if one of the parties were permitted to take the differencefor a separate price, it could be as if he had bought it separately,so he would be permitted. Then it would be possible for him to ask formany times the value of the difference in order to permit thecompletion of the transaction between the two parties. Maliksaid, "If he had really been sold the difference without anything elsewith it, he would not have taken it for a tenth of the price for whichhe took it in order to put a 'legal front' on the transaction. Thisleads to allowing what is forbidden . The matter is forbidden." Malik said that it was not good when counterpoising to give goodold gold coins and put along with them unminted gold in exchange forworn kufic gold, which was unpopular and to then treat the exchange aslike for like. Malik said, "The commentary on why that isdisapproved is that the owner of the good gold uses the excellence ofhis old gold coins as an excuse to throw in the unminted gold with it.Had it not been for the superiority of his (good) gold over the goldof the other party, the other party would not have counterpoised theunminted gold for his kufic gold, and the deal would have beenrefused. "It is like a man wanting to buy three sa of ajwadried dates for two sa and a mudd of kabis dates, and on being toldthat it was not good, then offering two sa of kabis and a sa of poordates desiring to make the sale possible. That is not good because theowner of the ajwa should not give him a sa of ajwa for a sa of poordates. He would only give him that because of the excellence of kabisdates. "Or it is like a man asking some one to sell him threesa of white wheat for two and a half sa of Syrian wheat, and beingtold that it was not good except like for like, and so offering two saof wheat and one sa of barley intending to make the sale possiblebetween them. That is not good because no one would have given a sa ofbarley for a sa of white wheat had that sa been by itself. It was onlygiven because of the excellence of Syrian wheat over the white wheat.This is not good. It is the same as the case of the unminted gold." Malik said, "Where gold, silver and food, things which shouldonly be sold like for like, are concerned, something disliked and ofpoor quality should not be put with something good and desirable inorder to make the sale possible and to make a bad situation halal.When something of desirable quality is put with something of poorquality and it is only included so that its excellence in quality isnoticed, something is being sold which if it had been sold on its own,would not have been accepted and to which the buyer would not havepaid any attention. It is only accepted by the buyer because of thesuperiority of what comes with it over his own goods. Transactionsinvolving gold, silver, or food, must not have anything of thisdescription enter into them. If the owner of the poor quality goodswants to sell them, he sells them on their own, and does not putanything with them. There is no harm if it is like that." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1331
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 39


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنِ ابْتَاعَ طَعَامًا فَلاَ يَبِعْهُ حَتَّى يَسْتَوْفِيَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umarthat the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "Someone who buys food, must not resell it until he takesdelivery of it all." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1332
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 40


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنِ ابْتَاعَ طَعَامًا فَلاَ يَبِعْهُ حَتَّى يَقْبِضَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar fromAbdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, said, "Someone who buys food, must not sell it untilhe takes possession of it." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1333
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 41


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ كُنَّا فِي زَمَانِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَبْتَاعُ الطَّعَامَ فَيَبْعَثُ عَلَيْنَا مَنْ يَأْمُرُنَا بِانْتِقَالِهِ مِنَ الْمَكَانِ الَّذِي ابْتَعْنَاهُ فِيهِ إِلَى مَكَانٍ سِوَاهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ نَبِيعَهُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umarsaid, "In the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, we used to buy food. He sent orders for us to moveour purchases from the place in which we purchased them to anotherplace before we re-sold them." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 1334
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 31 Hadith no 42



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