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Muwatta Imam Malik

The Mudabbar

كتاب المدبر

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، دَبَّرَ جَارِيَتَيْنِ لَهُ فَكَانَ يَطَؤُهُمَا وَهُمَا مُدَبَّرَتَانِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar made two ofhis slave-girls mudabbara, and he had intercourse with them while theywere mudabbara. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 40 Hadith no 1500
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 40 Hadith no 4


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، كَانَ يَقُولُ إِذَا دَبَّرَ الرَّجُلُ جَارِيَتَهُ فَإِنَّ لَهُ أَنْ يَطَأَهَا وَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَبِيعَهَا وَلاَ يَهَبَهَا وَوَلَدُهَا بِمَنْزِلَتِهَا ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said that Said ibn al-Musayyabused to say, "When a man makes his slave-girl mudabbara, he can haveintercourse with her. He cannot sell her or give her away and herchildren are in the same position as her." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 40 Hadith no 1501
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 40 Hadith no 5


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ، قَضَى فِي الْمُدَبَّرِ إِذَا جَرَحَ أَنَّ لِسَيِّدِهِ أَنْ يُسَلِّمَ مَا يَمْلِكُ مِنْهُ إِلَى الْمَجْرُوحِ فَيَخْتَدِمُهُ الْمَجْرُوحُ وَيُقَاصُّهُ بِجِرَاحِهِ مِنْ دِيَةِ جَرْحِهِ فَإِنْ أَدَّى قَبْلَ أَنْ يَهْلِكَ سَيِّدُهُ رَجَعَ إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الْمُدَبَّرِ إِذَا جَرَحَ ثُمَّ هَلَكَ سَيِّدُهُ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُ أَنَّهُ يُعْتَقُ ثُلُثُهُ ثُمَّ يُقْسَمُ عَقْلُ الْجَرْحِ أَثْلاَثًا فَيَكُونُ ثُلُثُ الْعَقْلِ عَلَى الثُّلُثِ الَّذِي عَتَقَ مِنْهُ وَيَكُونُ ثُلُثَاهُ عَلَى الثُّلُثَيْنِ اللَّذَيْنِ بِأَيْدِي الْوَرَثَةِ إِنْ شَاءُوا أَسْلَمُوا الَّذِي لَهُمْ مِنْهُ إِلَى صَاحِبِ الْجَرْحِ وَإِنْ شَاءُوا أَعْطَوْهُ ثُلُثَىِ الْعَقْلِ وَأَمْسَكُوا نَصِيبَهُمْ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ عَقْلَ ذَلِكَ الْجَرْحِ إِنَّمَا كَانَتْ جِنَايَتُهُ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ دَيْنًا عَلَى السَّيِّدِ فَلَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ الَّذِي أَحْدَثَ الْعَبْدُ بِالَّذِي يُبْطِلُ مَا صَنَعَ السَّيِّدُ مِنْ عِتْقِهِ وَتَدْبِيرِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ دَيْنٌ لِلنَّاسِ مَعَ جِنَايَةِ الْعَبْدِ بِيعَ مِنَ الْمُدَبَّرِ بِقَدْرِ عَقْلِ الْجَرْحِ وَقَدْرِ الدَّيْنِ ثُمَّ يُبَدَّأُ بِالْعَقْلِ الَّذِي كَانَ فِي جِنَايَةِ الْعَبْدِ فَيُقْضَى مِنْ ثَمَنِ الْعَبْدِ ثُمَّ يُقْضَى دَيْنُ سَيِّدِهِ ثُمَّ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى مَا بَقِيَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ فَيَعْتِقُ ثُلُثُهُ وَيَبْقَى ثُلُثَاهُ لِلْوَرَثَةِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ جِنَايَةَ الْعَبْدِ هِيَ أَوْلَى مِنْ دَيْنِ سَيِّدِهِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا هَلَكَ وَتَرَكَ عَبْدًا مُدَبَّرًا قِيمَتُهُ خَمْسُونَ وَمِائَةُ دِينَارٍ وَكَانَ الْعَبْدُ قَدْ شَجَّ رَجُلاً حُرًّا مُوضِحَةً عَقْلُهَا خَمْسُونَ دِينَارًا وَكَانَ عَلَى سَيِّدِ الْعَبْدِ مِنَ الدَّيْنِ خَمْسُونَ دِينَارًا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنَّهُ يُبْدَأُ بِالْخَمْسِينَ دِينَارًا الَّتِي فِي عَقْلِ الشَّجَّةِ فَتُقْضَى مِنْ ثَمَنِ الْعَبْدِ ثُمَّ يُقْضَى دَيْنُ سَيِّدِهِ ثُمَّ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ فَيَعْتِقُ ثُلُثُهُ وَيَبْقَى ثُلُثَاهُ لِلْوَرَثَةِ فَالْعَقْلُ أَوْجَبُ فِي رَقَبَتِهِ مِنْ دَيْنِ سَيِّدِهِ وَدَيْنُ سَيِّدِهِ أَوْجَبُ مِنَ التَّدْبِيرِ الَّذِي إِنَّمَا هُوَ وَصِيَّةٌ فِي ثُلُثِ مَالِ الْمَيِّتِ فَلاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَجُوزَ شَىْءٌ مِنَ التَّدْبِيرِ وَعَلَى سَيِّدِ الْمُدَبَّرِ دَيْنٌ لَمْ يُقْضَ وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ وَصِيَّةٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ ‏{‏مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَى بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ‏}‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي ثُلُثِ الْمَيِّتِ مَا يَعْتِقُ فِيهِ الْمُدَبَّرُ كُلُّهُ عَتَقَ وَكَانَ عَقْلُ جِنَايَتِهِ دَيْنًا عَلَيْهِ يُتَّبَعُ بِهِ بَعْدَ عِتْقِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ ذَلِكَ الْعَقْلُ الدِّيَةَ كَامِلَةً وَذَلِكَ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَى سَيِّدِهِ دَيْنٌ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُدَبَّرِ إِذَا جَرَحَ رَجُلاً فَأَسْلَمَهُ سَيِّدُهُ إِلَى الْمَجْرُوحِ ثُمَّ هَلَكَ سَيِّدُهُ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ وَلَمْ يَتْرُكْ مَالاً غَيْرَهُ فَقَالَ الْوَرَثَةُ نَحْنُ نُسَلِّمُهُ إِلَى صَاحِبِ الْجُرْحِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ صَاحِبُ الدَّيْنِ أَنَا أَزِيدُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ إِنَّهُ إِذَا زَادَ الْغَرِيمُ شَيْئًا فَهُوَ أَوْلَى بِهِ وَيُحَطُّ عَنِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الدَّيْنُ قَدْرُ مَا زَادَ الْغَرِيمُ عَلَى دِيَةِ الْجَرْحِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَزِدْ شَيْئًا لَمْ يَأْخُذِ الْعَبْدَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْمُدَبَّرِ إِذَا جَرَحَ وَلَهُ مَالٌ فَأَبَى سَيِّدُهُ أَنْ يَفْتَدِيَهُ فَإِنَّ الْمَجْرُوحَ يَأْخُذُ مَالَ الْمُدَبَّرِ فِي دِيَةِ جُرْحِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ فِيهِ وَفَاءٌ اسْتَوْفَى الْمَجْرُوحُ دِيَةَ جُرْحِهِ وَرَدَّ الْمُدَبَّرَ إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهِ وَفَاءٌ اقْتَضَاهُ مِنْ دِيَةِ جُرْحِهِ وَاسْتَعْمَلَ الْمُدَبَّرَ بِمَا بَقِيَ لَهُ مِنْ دِيَةِ جُرْحِهِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he heard that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz gavea judgement about the mudabbar who did an injury. He said, "The mastermust surrender what he owns of him to the injured person. He is madeto serve the injured person and recompense (in the form of service) istaken from him as the blood-money of the injury. If he completes thatbefore his master dies, he reverts to his master." Maliksaid, "The generally agreed on way of doing things in our communityabout a mudabbar who does an injury and then his master dies and themaster has no property except him is that the third (allowed to bebequeathed) is freed, and then the blood-money for the in jury isdivided into thirds. A third of the blood-money is against the thirdof him which was set free, and two-thirds are against the two-thirdswhich the heirs have. If they wish, they surrender what they have ofhim to the party with the injury, and if they wish, they give theinjured person two-thirds of the blood-money and keep their portion ofthe slave. That is because that injury is a criminal action by theslave and it is not a debt against the master by which whateversetting free and tadbir the master had done would be abrogated. Ifthere were a debt to people held against the master of the slave, aswell as the criminal action of the slave, part of the mudabbar wouldbe sold in proportion to the blood-money of the injury and accordingto the debt. Then one would begin with the blood-money which was forthe criminal action of the slave and it would be paid from the priceof the slave. Then the debt of his master would be paid, and then onewould look at what remained after that of the slave. His third would bbe set free, and two-thirds of him would belong to the heirs. That isbecause the criminal action of the slave is more important than thedebt of his master. That is because, if the man dies and leaves amudabbar slave whose value is one hundred and fifty dinars, and theslave strikes a free man on the head with a blow that lays open theskull, and the blood-money is fifty dinars, and the master of theslave has a debt of fifty dinars, one begins with the fifty dinarswhich are the blood-money of the head wound, and it is paid from theprice of the slave. Then the debt of the master is paid. Then onelooks at what remains of the slave, and a third of him is set free andtwo-thirds of him remain for the heirs. The blood-money is morepressing against his person than the debt of his master. The debt ofhis master is more pressing than the tadbir which is a bequest fromthe third of the property of the deceased. None of the tadbir ispermitted while the master of the mudabbar has a debt which is notpaid. It is a bequest. That is because Allah, the Blessed, theExalted, said, 'After any bequest that is made or any debt.' " (Sura 4ayat 10) Malik said, "If there is enough in the thirdproperty that the deceased can bequeath to free all the mudabbar, heis freed and the blood-money due from his criminal action is held as adebt against him which follows him after he is set free even if thatblood-money is the full blood-money. It is not a debt on the master." Malik spoke about a mudabbar who injured a man and his mastersurrendered him to the injured party, and then the master died and hada debt and did not leave any property other than the mudabbar, and theheirs said, "We surrender the mudabbar to the party," whilst thecreditor said, "My debt exceeds that." Malik said that if thecreditor's debt did exceed that at all , he was more entitled to itand it was taken from the one who owed the debt, according to what thecreditor was owed in excess of the blood-money of the injury. If hisdebt did not exceed it at all, he did not take the slave. Malik spoke about a mudabbar who did an injury and had property, andhis master refused to ransom him. He said, "The injured party takesthe property of the mudabbar for the blood-money of his injury. Ifthere is enough to pay it, the injured party is paid in full for theblood-money of his injury and the mudabbar is returned to his master.If there is not enough to pay it, he takes it from the blood-money anduses the mudabbar for what remains of the blood-money." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 40 Hadith no 1502
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 40 Hadith no 7



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