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Sunan an-Nasai

The Book of the Etiquette of Judges

كتاب آداب القضاة

أَخْبَرَنَا الرَّبِيعُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعَيْبُ بْنُ اللَّيْثِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَجْلاَنَ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنِ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ خَرَجَتِ امْرَأَتَانِ مَعَهُمَا صَبِيَّانِ لَهُمَا فَعَدَا الذِّئْبُ عَلَى إِحْدَاهُمَا فَأَخَذَ وَلَدَهَا فَأَصْبَحَتَا تَخْتَصِمَانِ فِي الصَّبِيِّ الْبَاقِي إِلَى دَاوُدَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ فَقَضَى بِهِ لِلْكُبْرَى مِنْهُمَا فَمَرَّتَا عَلَى سُلَيْمَانَ فَقَالَ كَيْفَ أَمْرُكُمَا فَقَصَّتَا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ ائْتُونِي بِالسِّكِّينِ أَشُقُّ الْغُلاَمَ بَيْنَهُمَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَتِ الصُّغْرَى أَتَشُقُّهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ لاَ تَفْعَلْ حَظِّي مِنْهُ لَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏.‏ هُوَ ابْنُكِ ‏.‏ فَقَضَى بِهِ لَهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏


Chapter: The Judge is Allowed to Speak of Something That He Will Not Actually Do in Order to Establish the Tr

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that: The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said: "Two women went out with two children of theirs, and the wolf attacked one of them and took her child. The next day they referred their dispute over the remaining child to Dawud, peace be upon him, and he ruled that (the child) belonged to the older woman. Then they passed by Sulaiman and he said: 'What is your story?' So they told him. He said: 'Bring me a knife and I will cut him in half (to be shared) between you.' The younger one said: 'Will you cut him in half?' He said: 'Yes.' She said: 'Do not do that; I will give my share of him to her.' He said: 'He is your child' and he ruled that he belonged to her." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Nasai Book 49 Hadith no 5403
Web reference: Sunan Nasai Volume 6 Book 49 Hadith no 5405


أَخْبَرَنَا الْمُغِيرَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مِسْكِينُ بْنُ بُكَيْرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعَيْبُ بْنُ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنِ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ خَرَجَتِ امْرَأَتَانِ مَعَهُمَا وَلَدَاهُمَا فَأَخَذَ الذِّئْبُ أَحَدَهُمَا فَاخْتَصَمَتَا فِي الْوَلَدِ إِلَى دَاوُدَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَضَى بِهِ لِلْكُبْرَى مِنْهُمَا فَمَرَّتَا عَلَى سُلَيْمَانَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ فَقَالَ كَيْفَ قَضَى بَيْنَكُمَا قَالَتْ قَضَى بِهِ لِلْكُبْرَى ‏.‏ قَالَ سُلَيْمَانُ أَقْطَعُهُ بِنِصْفَيْنِ لِهَذِهِ نِصْفٌ وَلِهَذِهِ نِصْفٌ ‏.‏ قَالَتِ الْكُبْرَى نَعَمِ اقْطَعُوهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتِ الصُّغْرَى لاَ تَقْطَعْهُ هُوَ وَلَدُهَا ‏.‏ فَقَضَى بِهِ لِلَّتِي أَبَتْ أَنْ يَقْطَعَهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏


Chapter: The Judge Undoing a Ruling Passed by Someone Else of His Caliber or Greater Than Him

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that : The Prophet [SAW] said: "Two women went out with their two children, and the wolf took one of the children from them. They referred their dispute to Prophet Dawud, peace be upon him, and he ruled that (the remaining child) belonged to the older woman. Then they passed by Sulaiman, peace be upon him, and he said: 'How did he judge between you?' She said: 'He ruled that (the child) belongs to the older woman.' Sulaiman said: 'Cut him in half, and give half to one and half to the other.' The older woman said: 'Yes, cut him in half.' The younger woman said: 'Do not cut him, he is her child.' So he ruled that the child belonged to the woman who refused to let him be cut." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Nasai Book 49 Hadith no 5404
Web reference: Sunan Nasai Volume 6 Book 49 Hadith no 5406


أَخْبَرَنَا زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ يَحْيَى، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى بْنُ حَمَّادٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا بِشْرُ بْنُ السَّرِيِّ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، ح وَأَنْبَأَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مَعِينٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هِشَامُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، وَعَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ سَالِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ بَعَثَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَالِدَ بْنَ الْوَلِيدِ إِلَى بَنِي جَذِيمَةَ فَدَعَاهُمْ إِلَى الإِسْلاَمِ فَلَمْ يُحْسِنُوا أَنْ يَقُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا فَجَعَلُوا يَقُولُونَ صَبَأْنَا وَجَعَلَ خَالِدٌ قَتْلاً وَأَسْرًا - قَالَ - فَدَفَعَ إِلَى كُلِّ رَجُلٍ أَسِيرَهُ حَتَّى إِذَا أَصْبَحَ يَوْمُنَا أَمَرَ خَالِدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ أَنْ يَقْتُلَ كُلُّ رَجُلٍ مِنَّا أَسِيرَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ فَقُلْتُ وَاللَّهِ لاَ أَقْتُلُ أَسِيرِي وَلاَ يَقْتُلُ أَحَدٌ - وَقَالَ بِشْرٌ - مِنْ أَصْحَابِي أَسِيرَهُ - قَالَ - فَقَدِمْنَا عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذُكِرَ لَهُ صُنْعُ خَالِدٍ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَرَفَعَ يَدَيْهِ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَبْرَأُ إِلَيْكَ مِمَّا صَنَعَ خَالِدٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ زَكَرِيَّا فِي حَدِيثِهِ فَذُكِرَ وَفِي حَدِيثِ بِشْرٍ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَبْرَأُ إِلَيْكَ مِمَّا صَنَعَ خَالِدٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ مَرَّتَيْنِ ‏.‏


Chapter: Refuting a Judge if He Passes an Incorrect Judgment

It was narrated from Salim that his father said: "The Prophet [SAW] sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to Banu Jadhimah. He called them to Islam, but they could not say Aslamna (we submitted, i.e., became Muslim) so they started to say Saba'na (we changed our religion). Khalid started killing and taking prisoners, and he gave a prisoner to each man. The next day Khalid bin Al-Walid issued orders that each man among us kill his prisoner." Ibn 'Umar said: "I said: 'By Allah, I will not kill my prisoner, and no one (among my companions) will kill his prisoner.' We came to the Prophet [SAW], and he was told of what Khalid had done. The Prophet [SAW] said: 'I disavow what Khalid has done,' twice." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Nasai Book 49 Hadith no 5405
Web reference: Sunan Nasai Volume 6 Book 49 Hadith no 5407


أَخْبَرَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرَةَ، قَالَ كَتَبَ أَبِي وَكَتَبْتُ لَهُ إِلَى عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرَةَ وَهُوَ قَاضِي سِجِسْتَانَ أَنْ لاَ، تَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ وَأَنْتَ غَضْبَانُ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ لاَ يَحْكُمْ أَحَدٌ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ وَهُوَ غَضْبَانُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏


Chapter: Mentioning What the Judge Should Avoid

It was narrated that 'Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah said: "My father wrote to 'Ubaidullah bin Abi Bakrah - who was the judge of Sijistan - saying: 'Do not pass judgment between two people when you are angry, for I heard the Messenger of Allah [SAW] say: No one should pass judgment between two people when he is angry.'" Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Nasai Book 49 Hadith no 5406
Web reference: Sunan Nasai Volume 6 Book 49 Hadith no 5408


أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى، وَالْحَارِثُ بْنُ مِسْكِينٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ وَهْبٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي يُونُسُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ، وَاللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عُرْوَةَ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ، حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ الزُّبَيْرِ حَدَّثَهُ عَنِ الزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْعَوَّامِ، أَنَّهُ خَاصَمَ رَجُلاً مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ قَدْ شَهِدَ بَدْرًا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي شِرَاجِ الْحَرَّةِ كَانَا يَسْقِيَانِ بِهِ كِلاَهُمَا النَّخْلَ فَقَالَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ سَرِّحِ الْمَاءَ يَمُرَّ عَلَيْهِ ‏.‏ فَأَبَى عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ اسْقِ يَا زُبَيْرُ ثُمَّ أَرْسِلِ الْمَاءَ إِلَى جَارِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَغَضِبَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ وَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَنْ كَانَ ابْنَ عَمَّتِكَ فَتَلَوَّنَ وَجْهُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ يَا زُبَيْرُ اسْقِ ثُمَّ احْبِسِ الْمَاءَ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ إِلَى الْجَدْرِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَاسْتَوْفَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِلزُّبَيْرِ حَقَّهُ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ أَشَارَ عَلَى الزُّبَيْرِ بِرَأْىٍ فِيهِ السَّعَةُ لَهُ وَلِلأَنْصَارِيِّ فَلَمَّا أَحْفَظَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الأَنْصَارِيُّ اسْتَوْفَى لِلزُّبَيْرِ حَقَّهُ فِي صَرِيحِ الْحُكْمِ ‏.‏ قَالَ الزُّبَيْرُ لاَ أَحْسَبُ هَذِهِ الآيَةَ أُنْزِلَتْ إِلاَّ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏{‏ فَلاَ وَرَبِّكَ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ‏}‏ وَأَحَدُهُمَا يَزِيدُ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ فِي الْقِصَّةِ ‏.‏


Chapter: Concession Allowing a Trustworthy Judge to Pass Judgment When He is Angry

It was narrated from Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam that: He disputed with a man among Ansar who had been present at Badr with the Messenger of Allah [SAW], concerning a stream in Al-Harrah from which they both used to water their date palm trees. The Ansari said: "Let the water flow." But he (Az-Zubair) refused. The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said: "Irrigate (your land), O Zubair! Then let the water flow to your neighbor." The Ansari became angry and said, "O Messenger of Allah, is it because he is your cousin?" The face of the Messenger of Allah [SAW] changed color (because of anger) and he said: "O Zubair! Irrigate (your land) then block the water, until it flows back to the walls." So the Messenger of Allah [SAW] allowed Az-Zubair to take his rights in full, although before that he had suggested to Az-Zubair a middle way that benefited both him and the Ansari. But when the Ansari made the Messenger of Allah [SAW] angry, he gave Az-Zubair his rights in full, as stated clearly in his ruling. Az-Zubair said: "I think that this Verse was revealed concerning this matter: 'But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad) judge in all disputes between them.'" Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Nasai Book 49 Hadith no 5407
Web reference: Sunan Nasai Volume 6 Book 49 Hadith no 5409


أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو دَاوُدَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عُمَرَ، قَالَ أَنْبَأَنَا يُونُسُ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ كَعْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ تَقَاضَى ابْنَ أَبِي حَدْرَدٍ دَيْنًا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ فَارْتَفَعَتْ أَصْوَاتُهُمَا حَتَّى سَمِعَهُمَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ فِي بَيْتِهِ فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْهِمَا فَكَشَفَ سِتْرَ حُجْرَتِهِ فَنَادَى ‏"‏ يَا كَعْبُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ لَبَّيْكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ ضَعْ مِنْ دَيْنِكَ هَذَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَأَوْمَأَ إِلَى الشَّطْرِ قَالَ قَدْ فَعَلْتُ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُمْ فَاقْضِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏


Chapter: The Judge Passing Judgment in His House

It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin Ka'b, from his father, that : He asked Ibn Abi Hadrad to pay off a debt that he owed him. Their voices grew so loud that the Messenger of Allah [SAW] heard them when he was inside his house. He came out to them, drew back the curtain of his room and called out: "O Ka'b!" He said: "Here I am, O Messenger of Allah." He said: "Drop his debt to half." He said: "I will do that." He said (to the debtor): "Go and pay it off." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Nasai Book 49 Hadith no 5408
Web reference: Sunan Nasai Volume 6 Book 49 Hadith no 5410



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