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Sunan Abi Dawud

The Office of the Judge (Kitab Al-Aqdiyah)

كتاب الأقضية

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَثِيرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ زَيْنَبَ بِنْتِ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ وَإِنَّكُمْ تَخْتَصِمُونَ إِلَىَّ وَلَعَلَّ بَعْضَكُمْ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَلْحَنَ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَأَقْضِيَ لَهُ عَلَى نَحْوِ مَا أَسْمَعُ مِنْهُ فَمَنْ قَضَيْتُ لَهُ مِنْ حَقِّ أَخِيهِ بِشَىْءٍ فَلاَ يَأْخُذْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا فَإِنَّمَا أَقْطَعُ لَهُ قِطْعَةً مِنَ النَّارِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏


Chapter: Regarding the Judges judge when he is mistaken

Umm Salamah reported the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) as saying: "I am only a human being, and you bring your disputes to me, some perhaps being more eloquent in their plea than others, so that I give judgement on their behalf according to what I hear from them. Therefore, whatever I decide for anyone which by right belongs to his brother, he must not take anything, for I am granting him only a portion of Hell. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3583
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3576


حَدَّثَنَا الرَّبِيعُ بْنُ نَافِعٍ أَبُو تَوْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ رَافِعٍ، مَوْلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، قَالَتْ أَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم رَجُلاَنِ يَخْتَصِمَانِ فِي مَوَارِيثَ لَهُمَا لَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُمَا بَيِّنَةٌ إِلاَّ دَعْوَاهُمَا فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَكَرَ مِثْلَهُ فَبَكَى الرَّجُلاَنِ وَقَالَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا حَقِّي لَكَ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهُمَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَمَّا إِذْ فَعَلْتُمَا مَا فَعَلْتُمَا فَاقْتَسِمَا وَتَوَخَّيَا الْحَقَّ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ اسْتَهِمَا ثُمَّ تَحَالاَّ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Umm Salamah said: Two men came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) who were disputing over their inheritance. They had no evidence except their claim. The Prophet (PBUH) then said in a similar way. Thereupon both the men wept and each of them said: This right of mine go to you. The Prophet (PBUH) then said: Now you have done whatever you have done ; do divide it up, aiming at what is right, then drew lots, and let each of you consider the other to have what is legitimately his" Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3584
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3577


حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى الرَّازِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا عِيسَى، حَدَّثَنَا أُسَامَةُ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ رَافِعٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ يَخْتَصِمَانِ فِي مَوَارِيثَ وَأَشْيَاءَ قَدْ دَرَسَتْ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ إِنِّي إِنَّمَا أَقْضِي بَيْنَكُمْ بِرَأْيِي فِيمَا لَمْ يُنْزَلْ عَلَىَّ فِيهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Umm Salamah reported the Prophet (PBUH) as saying when two men were disputing over inheritance and old things: I decide between you on the basis of my opinion in cases about which no revelation has been sent down to me. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3585
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3578


حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ الْمَهْرِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، - رضى الله عنه - قَالَ وَهُوَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ الرَّأْىَ إِنَّمَا كَانَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مُصِيبًا لأَنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ يُرِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ مِنَّا الظَّنُّ وَالتَّكَلُّفُ ‏.‏

Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab: Umar said while he was (sitting) on the pulpit: O people, the opinion from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was right, because Allah showed (i.e. inspired) him; but from us it is sheer conjecture and artifice. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3586
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3579


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدَةَ الضَّبِّيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَبُو عُثْمَانَ الشَّامِيُّ، وَلاَ إِخَالُنِي رَأَيْتُ شَامِيًّا أَفْضَلَ مِنْهُ يَعْنِي حَرِيزَ بْنَ عُثْمَانَ ‏.‏

Mu'adh bin Mu'adh said: Abu 'Uthman al-Shami, whose name is Hariz bin 'Uthman, told me. I think I did not see anyone from Syria better than him. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3587
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3580


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مَنِيعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ، حَدَّثَنَا مُصْعَبُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، قَالَ قَضَى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ الْخَصْمَيْنِ يَقْعُدَانِ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ الْحَكَمِ ‏.‏


Chapter: How should the disputants sit before the judge

Narrated Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) gave the decision that the two adversaries should be made to sit in front of the judge. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3588
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3581



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