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Sunan Abi Dawud

The Office of the Judge (Kitab Al-Aqdiyah)

كتاب الأقضية

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ فَارِسٍ، أَنَّ الْحَكَمَ بْنَ نَافِعٍ، حَدَّثَهُمْ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُمَارَةَ بْنِ خُزَيْمَةَ، أَنَّ عَمَّهُ، حَدَّثَهُ وَهُوَ، مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ابْتَاعَ فَرَسًا مِنْ أَعْرَابِيٍّ فَاسْتَتْبَعَهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِيَقْضِيَهُ ثَمَنَ فَرَسِهِ فَأَسْرَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَشْىَ وَأَبْطَأَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ فَطَفِقَ رِجَالٌ يَعْتَرِضُونَ الأَعْرَابِيَّ فَيُسَاوِمُونَهُ بِالْفَرَسِ وَلاَ يَشْعُرُونَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ابْتَاعَهُ فَنَادَى الأَعْرَابِيُّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ إِنْ كُنْتَ مُبْتَاعًا هَذَا الْفَرَسَ وَإِلاَّ بِعْتُهُ ‏.‏ فَقَامَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم حِينَ سَمِعَ نِدَاءَ الأَعْرَابِيِّ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أَوَلَيْسَ قَدِ ابْتَعْتُهُ مِنْكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ لاَ وَاللَّهِ مَا بِعْتُكَهُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ بَلَى قَدِ ابْتَعْتُهُ مِنْكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَطَفِقَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ يَقُولُ هَلُمَّ شَهِيدًا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ خُزَيْمَةُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ أَنَا أَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ قَدْ بَايَعْتَهُ ‏.‏ فَأَقْبَلَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى خُزَيْمَةَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ بِمَ تَشْهَدُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ بِتَصْدِيقِكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ فَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَهَادَةَ خُزَيْمَةَ بِشَهَادَةِ رَجُلَيْنِ ‏.‏


Chapter: If the judge knows that the testimony of one person is true, is it permissible for him to pass judgm

Narrated Uncle of Umarah ibn Khuzaymah: The Prophet (PBUH) bought a horse from a Bedouin. The Prophet (PBUH) took him with him to pay him the price of his horse. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) walked quickly and the Bedouin walked slowly. The people stopped the Bedouin and began to bargain with him for the horse as and they did not know that the Prophet (PBUH) had bought it. The Bedouin called the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying: If you want this horse, (then buy it), otherwise I shall sell it. The Prophet (PBUH) stopped when he heard the call of the Bedouin, and said: Have I not bought it from you? The Bedouin said: I swear by Allah, I have not sold it to you. The Prophet (PBUH) said: Yes, I have bought it from you. The Bedouin began to say: Bring a witness. Khuzaymah ibn Thabit then said: I bear witness that you have bought it. The Prophet (PBUH) turned to Khuzaymah and said: On what (grounds) do you bear witness? He said: By considering you trustworthy, Messenger of Allah (PBUH)! The Prophet (PBUH) made the witness of Khuzaymah equivalent to the witness of two people. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3607
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3600


حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَالْحَسَنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، أَنَّ زَيْدَ بْنَ الْحُبَابِ، حَدَّثَهُمْ حَدَّثَنَا سَيْفٌ الْمَكِّيُّ، - قَالَ عُثْمَانُ سَيْفُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ - عَنْ قَيْسِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَضَى بِيَمِينٍ وَشَاهِدٍ ‏.‏


Chapter: Judgement on the basis of oath and one witness

Ibn 'Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) gave a decision on the basis of an oath and a single witness. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3608
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3601


حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، وَسَلَمَةُ بْنُ شَبِيبٍ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، بِإِسْنَادِهِ وَمَعْنَاهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ سَلَمَةُ فِي حَدِيثِهِ قَالَ عَمْرٌو فِي الْحُقُوقِ ‏.‏

The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by 'Amr bin Dinar through a different chain of narrators and to the same effect. Salamah has in his version: 'Amr said: In the rights (of the people). Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3609
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3602


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ أَبُو مُصْعَبٍ الزُّهْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا الدَّرَاوَرْدِيُّ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَضَى بِالْيَمِينِ مَعَ الشَّاهِدِ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَزَادَنِي الرَّبِيعُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ الْمُؤَذِّنُ فِي هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي الشَّافِعِيُّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ قَالَ فَذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِسُهَيْلٍ فَقَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي رَبِيعَةُ - وَهُوَ عِنْدِي ثِقَةٌ - أَنِّي حَدَّثْتُهُ إِيَّاهُ وَلاَ أَحْفَظُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ وَقَدْ كَانَ أَصَابَتْ سُهَيْلاً عِلَّةٌ أَذْهَبَتْ بَعْضَ عَقْلِهِ وَنَسِيَ بَعْضَ حَدِيثِهِ فَكَانَ سُهَيْلٌ بَعْدُ يُحَدِّثُهُ عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ ‏.‏

Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (PBUH) gave a decision on the basis of an oath and a single witness. Abu Dawud said: Al-Rabi' bin Sulaiman al-Mu'adhdhin told me some additional words in this tradition: Al-Shafi'i told me from 'Abd al-'Aziz. I then mentioned it fo Suhail who said: Rabi'ah told me - and he is reliable in my opinion - that I told him this (tradition) and I do not remember it. 'Abd al-'Aziz said: Suhail suffered from some disease which caused him to lose a little of his intelligence, and he forgot some of his traditions. Thereafter Suhail would narrate traditions from Rabi'ah on the authority of his father. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3610
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3603


حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ الإِسْكَنْدَرَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا زِيَادٌ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ يُونُسَ - حَدَّثَنِي سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلاَلٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ، بِإِسْنَادِ أَبِي مُصْعَبٍ وَمَعْنَاهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ سُلَيْمَانُ فَلَقِيتُ سُهَيْلاً فَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ فَقَالَ مَا أَعْرِفُهُ ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ رَبِيعَةَ أَخْبَرَنِي بِهِ عَنْكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنْ كَانَ رَبِيعَةُ أَخْبَرَكَ عَنِّي فَحَدِّثْ بِهِ عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ عَنِّي ‏.‏

The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Rabi'ah through the chain of Abu Mus'ab and to the same effect. Sulaiman said: I then met Suhail and asked him about this tradition. He said: I do not know it. I said to him: Rabi'ah transmitted it to me from you. He said: If Rabi'ah transmitted it to you from me, then retransmit it from Rabi'ah on my authority. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3611
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3604


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمَّارُ بْنُ شُعَيْبِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الزُّبَيْبِ الْعَنْبَرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي قَالَ، سَمِعْتُ جَدِّيَ الزُّبَيْبَ، يَقُولُ بَعَثَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم جَيْشًا إِلَى بَنِي الْعَنْبَرِ فَأَخَذُوهُمْ بِرُكْبَةٍ مِنْ نَاحِيَةِ الطَّائِفِ فَاسْتَاقُوهُمْ إِلَى نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَرَكِبْتُ فَسَبَقْتُهُمْ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ السَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ أَتَانَا جُنْدُكَ فَأَخَذُونَا وَقَدْ كُنَّا أَسْلَمْنَا وَخَضْرَمْنَا آذَانَ النَّعَمِ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ بَلْعَنْبَرُ قَالَ لِي نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ هَلْ لَكُمْ بَيِّنَةٌ عَلَى أَنَّكُمْ أَسْلَمْتُمْ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُؤْخَذُوا فِي هَذِهِ الأَيَّامِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ بَيِّنَتُكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ سَمُرَةُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَنِي الْعَنْبَرِ وَرَجُلٌ آخَرُ سَمَّاهُ لَهُ فَشَهِدَ الرَّجُلُ وَأَبَى سَمُرَةُ أَنْ يَشْهَدَ فَقَالَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ قَدْ أَبَى أَنْ يَشْهَدَ لَكَ فَتَحْلِفُ مَعَ شَاهِدِكَ الآخَرِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَاسْتَحْلَفَنِي فَحَلَفْتُ بِاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَسْلَمْنَا يَوْمَ كَذَا وَكَذَا وَخَضْرَمْنَا آذَانَ النَّعَمِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ اذْهَبُوا فَقَاسِمُوهُمْ أَنْصَافَ الأَمْوَالِ وَلاَ تَمَسُّوا ذَرَارِيَهُمْ لَوْلاَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ ضَلاَلَةَ الْعَمَلِ مَا رَزَيْنَاكُمْ عِقَالاً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ الزُّبَيْبُ فَدَعَتْنِي أُمِّي فَقَالَتْ هَذَا الرَّجُلُ أَخَذَ زِرْبِيَّتِي فَانْصَرَفْتُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم - يَعْنِي فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ - فَقَالَ لِي ‏"‏ احْبِسْهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَخَذْتُ بِتَلْبِيبِهِ وَقُمْتُ مَعَهُ مَكَانَنَا ثُمَّ نَظَرَ إِلَيْنَا نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَائِمَيْنِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَا تُرِيدُ بِأَسِيرِكَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَأَرْسَلْتُهُ مِنْ يَدِي فَقَامَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ لِلرَّجُلِ ‏"‏ رُدَّ عَلَى هَذَا زِرْبِيَّةَ أُمِّهِ الَّتِي أَخَذْتَ مِنْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا خَرَجَتْ مِنْ يَدِي ‏.‏ قَالَ فَاخْتَلَعَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم سَيْفَ الرَّجُلِ فَأَعْطَانِيهِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ لِلرَّجُلِ ‏"‏ اذْهَبْ فَزِدْهُ آصُعًا مِنْ طَعَامٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَزَادَنِي آصُعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ ‏.‏

Narrated Zubayb ibn Tha'labah al-Anbari: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) sent an army to Banu al-Anbar. They captured them at Rukbah in the suburbs of at-Ta'if and drove them to the Holy Prophet (PBUH). I rode hurriedly to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and said: Peace be on you, Messenger of Allah, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Your contingent came to us and arrested us, but we had already embraced Islam and cut the sides of the ears of our cattle. When Banu al-Anbar arrived, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) said to me: Have you any evidence that you had embraced Islam before you were captured today? I said: Yes. He said: Who is your witness? I said: Samurah, a man from Banu al-Anbar, and another man whom he named. The man testified but Samurah refused to testify. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: He (Samurah) has refused to testify for you, so take an oath with your other witness. I said: Yes. He then dictated an oath to me and I swore to the effect that we had embraced Islam on a certain day, and that we had cut the sides of the ears of the cattle. The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: Go and divide half of their property, but do not touch their children. Had Allah not disliked the wastage of action, we should not have taxed you even a rope. Zubayb said: My mother called me and said: This man has taken my mattress. I then went to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and informed him. He said to me: Detain him. So I caught him with a garment around his neck, and stood there with him . Then the Holy Prophet (PBUH) looked at us standing there. He asked: What do you intend (doing) with your captive? I said: I shall let him go free if he returns to this (man) the mattress of his mother which he has taken from her. He said: Prophet of Allah (PBUH), I no longer have it. He said: The Holy Prophet (PBUH) took the sword of the man and gave it to me, and said to him: Go and give him some sa's of cereal. So he gave me some sa's of barley. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 25 Hadith no 3612
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 24 Hadith no 3605



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