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Muwatta Imam Malik

Setting Free and Wala'

كتاب العتق والولاء

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ هِلاَلِ بْنِ أُسَامَةَ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ أَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ جَارِيَةً لِي كَانَتْ تَرْعَى غَنَمًا لِي فَجِئْتُهَا وَقَدْ فُقِدَتْ شَاةٌ مِنَ الْغَنَمِ فَسَأَلْتُهَا عَنْهَا فَقَالَتْ أَكَلَهَا الذِّئْبُ فَأَسِفْتُ عَلَيْهَا وَكُنْتُ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ فَلَطَمْتُ وَجْهَهَا وَعَلَىَّ رَقَبَةٌ أَفَأُعْتِقُهَا فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَيْنَ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ فِي السَّمَاءِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ أَنَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَتْ أَنْتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَعْتِقْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Hilal ibn Usama from Ata ibn Yasar thatUmar ibn al-Hakam said, "I went to the Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, and said, 'Messenger of Allah, a slavegirl of mine was tending my sheep. I came to her and one of the sheepwas lost. I asked her about it and she said that a wolf had eaten it,so I became angry and I am one of the children of Adam, so I struckher on the face. As it happens, I have to set a slave free, shall Ifree her?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, questioned her, 'Where is Allah?' She said, 'In heaven.' Hesaid, 'Who am I?' She said, 'You are the Messenger of Allah.' TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,'Free her.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1473
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 8


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُتْبَةَ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ جَاءَ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِجَارِيَةٍ لَهُ سَوْدَاءَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ عَلَىَّ رَقَبَةً مُؤْمِنَةً فَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَرَاهَا مُؤْمِنَةً أُعْتِقُهَا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَتَشْهَدِينَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَتَشْهَدِينَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ قَالَتْ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَتُوقِنِينَ بِالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَتْ نَعَمْ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَعْتِقْهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from Ubaydullah ibn Abdullahibn Utba ibn Masud that one of the Ansar came to the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with a black slave-girl of his. He said, "Messenger of Allah, I must set a slave free whois a mumina. If you think that she is mumina, I will free her." TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,questioned her, "Do you testify that there is no god but Allah?" Shesaid, "Yes." "Do you testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah?"She said, "Yes." "Are you certain about the rising after death?" Shesaid, "Yes." The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant himpeace, said, "Free her." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1474
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 9


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنِ الْمَقْبُرِيِّ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سُئِلَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ، تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ رَقَبَةٌ هَلْ يُعْتِقُ فِيهَا ابْنَ زِنًا فَقَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ نَعَمْ ذَلِكَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he had heard that al-Maqburi said thatAbu Hurayra was asked whether a man who had to free a slave, couldfree an illegitimate child to fulfil that obligation. Abu Hurayrasaid, "Yes. That will give satisfaction for him." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1475
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 10


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، وَكَانَ، مِنْ أَصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ رَقَبَةٌ هَلْ يَجُوزُ لَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ وَلَدَ زِنًا قَالَ نَعَمْ ذَلِكَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he had heard that Fadala ibn Ubayd al-Ansari who was one of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, mayAllah bless him and grant him peace, was asked whether it waspermissible for a man who had to free a slave to free an illegitimatechild. He said, "Yes, That will give satisfaction for him." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1476
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 11


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، سُئِلَ عَنِ الرَّقَبَةِ الْوَاجِبَةِ، هَلْ تُشْتَرَى بِشَرْطٍ فَقَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَذَلِكَ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي الرِّقَابِ الْوَاجِبَةِ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَشْتَرِيهَا الَّذِي يُعْتِقُهَا فِيمَا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ بِشَرْطٍ عَلَى أَنْ يُعْتِقَهَا لأَنَّهُ إِذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَتْ بِرَقَبَةٍ تَامَّةٍ لأَنَّهُ يَضَعُ مِنْ ثَمَنِهَا لِلَّذِي يَشْتَرِطُ مِنْ عِتْقِهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَ الرَّقَبَةَ فِي التَّطَوُّعِ وَيَشْتَرِطَ أَنْ يُعْتِقَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِنَّ أَحْسَنَ مَا سُمِعَ فِي الرِّقَابِ الْوَاجِبَةِ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَجُوزُ أَنْ يُعْتَقَ فِيهَا نَصْرَانِيٌّ وَلاَ يَهُودِيٌّ وَلاَ يُعْتَقُ فِيهَا مُكَاتَبٌ وَلاَ مُدَبَّرٌ وَلاَ أُمُّ وَلَدٍ وَلاَ مُعْتَقٌ إِلَى سِنِينَ وَلاَ أَعْمَى وَلاَ بَأْسَ أَنْ يُعْتَقَ النَّصْرَانِيُّ وَالْيَهُودِيُّ وَالْمَجُوسِيُّ تَطَوُّعًا لأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً‏}‏ فَالْمَنُّ الْعَتَاقَةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَأَمَّا الرِّقَابُ الْوَاجِبَةُ الَّتِي ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ فِي الْكِتَابِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُعْتَقُ فِيهَا إِلاَّ رَقَبَةٌ مُؤْمِنَةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ فِي إِطْعَامِ الْمَسَاكِينِ فِي الْكَفَّارَاتِ لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يُطْعَمَ فِيهَا إِلاَّ الْمُسْلِمُونَ وَلاَ يُطْعَمُ فِيهَا أَحَدٌ عَلَى غَيْرِ دِينِ الإِسْلاَمِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he had heard that Abdullah ibn Umar wasasked whether a slave could be bought on the specific condition thatit was to be used to fulfil the obligation of freeing a slave, and hesaid, "No." Malik said, "That is the best of what I haveheard on the obligation of freeing slaves. Someone who has to set aslave free because of an obligation on him, may not buy one on thecondition that he sets it free because if he does that, whatever hebuys is not completely a slave because he has reduced its price by thecondition he has made of setting it free." Malik added,"There is no harm, however, in someone buying a person expressly toset him free." Malik said, "The best of what I have heard onthe obligation of freeing slaves is that it is not permitted to free achristian or a jew to fulfil it, and one does not free a mukatab or amudabbar or an umm walad or a slave to be freed after a certain numberof years, or a blind person. There is no harm in freeing a christian,jew, or magian voluntarily, because Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted,said in His Book, 'either as a favour then or by ransom,' (Sura 47ayat 4) The favour is setting free." Malik said, "As forobligations of freeing slaves which Allah has mentioned in the Book,one only frees a mumin slave for them." Malik said, "It islike that in feeding poor people for kaffara. One must only feedmuslims and one does not feed anyone outside of the deen of Islam." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1477
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 12


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَمْرَةَ الأَنْصَارِيِّ، أَنَّ أُمَّهُ، أَرَادَتْ أَنْ تُوصِيَ ثُمَّ أَخَّرَتْ ذَلِكَ إِلَى أَنْ تُصْبِحَ فَهَلَكَتْ وَقَدْ كَانَتْ هَمَّتْ بِأَنْ تُعْتِقَ فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ فَقُلْتُ لِلْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَيَنْفَعُهَا أَنْ أُعْتِقَ عَنْهَا فَقَالَ الْقَاسِمُ إِنَّ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَادَةَ قَالَ لِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِنَّ أُمِّي هَلَكَتْ فَهَلْ يَنْفَعُهَا أَنْ أُعْتِقَ عَنْهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ نَعَمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Abd ar-Rahman ibn Abi Amra al-Ansarithat his mother had wanted to make a bequest, but she delayed untilmorning and died. She had intended to set someone free, so Abd ar-Rahman said, 'I said to al-Qasim ibn Muhammad, 'Will it help her if Ifree a slave for her?' Al-Qasim replied, 'Sad ibn Ubada said to theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, 'Mymother died, will it help her if I set a slave free for her?' TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said"Yes." "' Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1478
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 13



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