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Muwatta Imam Malik

Setting Free and Wala'

كتاب العتق والولاء

وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى عَنْ بَيْعِ الْوَلاَءِ وَعَنْ هِبَتِهِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Dinar from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade selling or giving away the wala'. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1485
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 20


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، ‏.‏ أَنَّ الزُّبَيْرَ بْنَ الْعَوَّامِ، اشْتَرَى عَبْدًا فَأَعْتَقَهُ وَلِذَلِكَ الْعَبْدِ بَنُونَ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ فَلَمَّا أَعْتَقَهُ الزُّبَيْرُ قَالَ هُمْ مَوَالِيَّ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَوَالِي أُمِّهِمْ بَلْ هُمْ مَوَالِينَا ‏.‏ فَاخْتَصَمُوا إِلَى عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ فَقَضَى عُثْمَانُ لِلزُّبَيْرِ بِوَلاَئِهِمْ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Rabia ibn Abd ar-Rahman that az-Zubayr ibn al-Awwam bought a slave and set him free. The slave had children by a free woman. When az-Zubayr freed him, he said, "They are my mawali." The man argued, "They are the mawali of their mother. Rather, they are our mawali." They took the dispute to Uthman ibn Affan, and Uthman gave a judgement that az-Zubayr had their wala'. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1486
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 21


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، سُئِلَ عَنْ عَبْدٍ لَهُ، وَلَدٌ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ لِمَنْ وَلاَؤُهُمْ فَقَالَ سَعِيدٌ إِنْ مَاتَ أَبُوهُمْ وَهُوَ عَبْدٌ لَمْ يُعْتَقْ فَوَلاَؤُهُمْ لِمَوَالِي أُمِّهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَثَلُ ذَلِكَ وَلَدُ الْمُلاَعَنَةِ مِنَ الْمَوَالِي يُنْسَبُ إِلَى مَوَالِي أُمِّهِ فَيَكُونُونَ هُمْ مَوَالِيَهُ إِنْ مَاتَ وَرِثُوهُ وَإِنْ جَرَّ جَرِيرَةً عَقَلُوا عَنْهُ فَإِنِ اعْتَرَفَ بِهِ أَبُوهُ أُلْحِقَ بِهِ وَصَارَ وَلاَؤُهُ إِلَى مَوَالِي أَبِيهِ وَكَانَ مِيرَاثُهُ لَهُمْ وَعَقْلُهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَيُجْلَدُ أَبُوهُ الْحَدَّ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمَرْأَةُ الْمُلاَعِنَةُ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ إِذَا اعْتَرَفَ زَوْجُهَا الَّذِي لاَعَنَهَا بِوَلَدِهَا صَارَ بِمِثْلِ هَذِهِ الْمَنْزِلَةِ إِلاَّ أَنَّ بَقِيَّةَ مِيرَاثِهِ بَعْدَ مِيرَاثِ أُمِّهِ وَإِخْوَتِهِ لأُمِّهِ لِعَامَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مَا لَمْ يُلْحَقْ بِأَبِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا وَرَّثَ وَلَدُ الْمُلاَعَنَةِ الْمُوَالاَةَ مَوَالِيَ أُمِّهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَعْتَرِفَ بِهِ أَبُوهُ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ نَسَبٌ وَلاَ عَصَبَةٌ فَلَمَّا ثَبَتَ نَسَبُهُ صَارَ إِلَى عَصَبَتِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا فِي وَلَدِ الْعَبْدِ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ وَأَبُو الْعَبْدِ حُرٌّ أَنَّ الْجَدَّ أَبَا الْعَبْدِ يَجُرُّ وَلاَءَ وَلَدِ ابْنِهِ الأَحْرَارِ مِنِ امْرَأَةٍ حُرَّةٍ يَرِثُهُمْ مَا دَامَ أَبُوهُمْ عَبْدًا فَإِنْ عَتَقَ أَبُوهُمْ رَجَعَ الْوَلاَءُ إِلَى مَوَالِيهِ وَإِنْ مَاتَ وَهُوَ عَبْدٌ كَانَ الْمِيرَاثُ وَالْوَلاَءُ لِلْجَدِّ وَإِنِ الْعَبْدُ كَانَ لَهُ ابْنَانِ حُرَّانِ فَمَاتَ أَحَدُهُمَا وَأَبُوهُ عَبْدٌ جَرَّ الْجَدُّ أَبُو الأَبِ الْوَلاَءَ وَالْمِيرَاثَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الأَمَةِ تُعْتَقُ وَهِيَ حَامِلٌ وَزَوْجُهَا مَمْلُوكٌ ثُمَّ يَعْتِقُ زَوْجُهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تَضَعَ حَمْلَهَا أَوْ بَعْدَ مَا تَضَعُ إِنَّ وَلاَءَ مَا كَانَ فِي بَطْنِهَا لِلَّذِي أَعْتَقَ أُمَّهُ لأَنَّ ذَلِكَ الْوَلَدَ قَدْ كَانَ أَصَابَهُ الرِّقُّ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُعْتَقَ أُمُّهُ وَلَيْسَ هُوَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الَّذِي تَحْمِلُ بِهِ أُمُّهُ بَعْدَ الْعَتَاقَةِ لأَنَّ الَّذِي تَحْمِلُ بِهِ أُمُّهُ بَعْدَ الْعَتَاقَةِ إِذَا أُعْتِقَ أَبُوهُ جَرَّ وَلاَءَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْعَبْدِ يَسْتَأْذِنُ سَيِّدَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ عَبْدًا لَهُ فَيَأْذَنَ لَهُ سَيِّدُهُ إِنَّ وَلاَءَ الْعَبْدِ الْمُعْتَقِ

Malik related to me that he had heard that Said ibn al-Musayyab was asked who had the wala' of the children whom a slave had by a free woman. Said said, "If their father dies and he is a slave who was not set free, their wala' belongs to the mawali of their mother." Malik said, "That is like the child of a woman who is a mawla who has been divorced by lian; the child is attached to the mawali of his mother and they are his mawali. If he dies, they inherit from him. If he commits a crime, they pay the blood-money for him. If his father acknowledges him, he is given a kinship to him and his wala' goes to the mawali of his father. They are his heirs, they pay his blood-money and his father is punished with the hadd-punishment." Malik said, "It is like that with a free-born woman divorced by lian. If her husband who curses her by lian does not acknowledge her child, the child is dealt with in the same way except that the rest of his inheritance after the inheritance of his mother and his brothers from his mother goes to all the muslims as long as he was not given kinship to his father. The child of the lian is attached to the patronage of the mawali of his mother until his father acknowledges him because he does not have a lineage or paternal relations. If his lineage is confirmed, it goes to his paternal relations." Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things among us about a child of a slave by a free woman, while the father of the slave is free, is that the grandfather (the father of the slave), attracts the wala' of his son's free children by a free woman. They leave their inheritance to him as long as their father is a slave. If the father becomes free, the wala' returns to his mawali. If he dies and he is still a slave, the inheritance and the wala' go to the grandfather. If the slave has two free sons, and one of them dies while the father is still a slave, the grandfather, the father of the father, attracts the wala' and the inheritance." Malik spoke about a slave-girl who was set free while she was pregnant and her husband was a slave and then her husband became free before she gave birth, or after she gave birth. He said, "The wala' of what is in her womb goes to the person who set the mother free because slavery touched the child before the mother was set free. It is not treated in the same way as a child conceived by its mother after she has been set free because the wala' of such a child, is attracted by the father when he is set free." Malik said that if a slave asked his master's permission to free a slave of his and his master gave permission, the wala' of the freed slave went to the master of his master, and his wala' did not return to the master who had set him free, even if he were to become free himself." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1487
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 21


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حَزْمٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ هِشَامٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ الْعَاصِيَ بْنَ هِشَامٍ هَلَكَ وَتَرَكَ بَنِينَ لَهُ ثَلاَثَةً اثْنَانِ لأُمٍّ وَرَجُلٌ لِعَلَّةٍ فَهَلَكَ أَحَدُ اللَّذَيْنِ لأُمٍّ وَتَرَكَ مَالاً وَمَوَالِيَ فَوَرِثَهُ أَخُوهُ لأَبِيهِ وَأُمِّهِ مَالَهُ وَوَلاَءَهُ مَوَالِيهِ ثُمَّ هَلَكَ الَّذِي وَرِثَ الْمَالَ وَوَلاَءَ الْمَوَالِي وَتَرَكَ ابْنَهُ وَأَخَاهُ لأَبِيهِ فَقَالَ ابْنُهُ قَدْ أَحْرَزْتُ مَا كَانَ أَبِي أَحْرَزَ مِنَ الْمَالِ وَوَلاَءِ الْمَوَالِي وَقَالَ أَخُوهُ لَيْسَ كَذَلِكَ إِنَّمَا أَحْرَزْتَ الْمَالَ وَأَمَّا وَلاَءُ الْمَوَالِي فَلاَ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ هَلَكَ أَخِي الْيَوْمَ أَلَسْتُ أَرِثُهُ أَنَا فَاخْتَصَمَا إِلَى عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَفَّانَ فَقَضَى لأَخِيهِ بِوَلاَءِ الْمَوَالِي ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad ibnAmr ibn Hazm from Abd al-Malik ibn Abi Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Harith ibn Hisham that his father told him that al-Asi ibn Hisham haddied and left three sons, two by one wife and one by another wife. Oneof the two with the same mother died and left property and mawali. Hisfull brother inherited his property and the wala' of his mawali. Thenhe also died, and left as heirs his son and his paternal half brother.His son said, "I obtain what my father inherited of property and thewala' of the mawali." His brother said, "It is not like that. Youobtain the property. As for the wala' of the mawali, it is not so. Doyou think that had it been my first brother who died today, I wouldnot have inherited from him?" They argued and went to Uthman ibnAffan. He gave a judgement that the brother had the wala' of themawali. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1488
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 22


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ حَزْمٍ، أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَبُوهُ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ جَالِسًا عِنْدَ أَبَانَ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ فَاخْتَصَمَ إِلَيْهِ نَفَرٌ مِنْ جُهَيْنَةَ وَنَفَرٌ مِنْ بَنِي الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْخَزْرَجِ وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَةٌ مِنْ جُهَيْنَةَ عِنْدَ رَجُلٍ مِنْ بَنِي الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْخَزْرَجِ يُقَالُ لَهُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ كُلَيْبٍ فَمَاتَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ وَتَرَكَتْ مَالاً وَمَوَالِيَ فَوَرِثَهَا ابْنُهَا وَزَوْجُهَا ثُمَّ مَاتَ ابْنُهَا فَقَالَ وَرَثَتُهُ لَنَا وَلاَءُ الْمَوَالِي قَدْ كَانَ ابْنُهَا أَحْرَزَهُ فَقَالَ الْجُهَنِيُّونَ لَيْسَ كَذَلِكَ إِنَّمَا هُمْ مَوَالِي صَاحِبَتِنَا فَإِذَا مَاتَ وَلَدُهَا فَلَنَا وَلاَؤُهُمْ وَنَحْنُ نَرِثُهُمْ فَقَضَى أَبَانُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ لِلْجُهَنِيِّينَ بِوَلاَءِ الْمَوَالِي ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Hazm that hisfather told him that he was sitting with Aban ibn Uthman, and anargument was brought to him between some people from the Juhayna tribeand some people from the Banu al-Harith ibn al-Khazraj. A woman of theJuhayna tribe was married to a man from the Banu al-Harith ibn al-Khazraj, called Ibrahim ibn Kulayb. She died and left property andmawali, and her son and husband inherited them from her. Then her sondied and his heirs said, "We have the wala' of the mawali. Her sonobtained them." Those of the Juhayna said, "It is not like that. Theyare the mawali of our female associate. When her child died, we havetheir wala' and we inherit them." Aban ibn Uthman gave a judgementthat the people from the Juhayna tribe did indeed have the wala' ofthe mawali. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1489
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 23


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ سَعِيدَ بْنَ الْمُسَيَّبِ، قَالَ فِي رَجُلٍ هَلَكَ وَتَرَكَ بَنِينَ لَهُ ثَلاَثَةً وَتَرَكَ مَوَالِيَ أَعْتَقَهُمْ هُوَ عَتَاقَةً ثُمَّ إِنَّ الرَّجُلَيْنِ مِنْ بَنِيهِ هَلَكَا وَتَرَكَا أَوْلاَدًا ‏.‏ فَقَالَ سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ يَرِثُ الْمَوَالِيَ الْبَاقِي مِنَ الثَّلاَثَةِ فَإِذَا هَلَكَ هُوَ فَوَلَدُهُ وَوَلَدُ إِخْوَتِهِ فِي وَلاَءِ الْمَوَالِي شَرَعٌ سَوَاءٌ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he had heard that Said ibn al-Musayyabspoke about a man who died and left three sons and left mawali whom hehad freed. Then two of his sons died and left children. He said, "Thethird remaining son inherits the mawali. When he dies, his childrenand the children of his brothers share equally in the wala' of themawali." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1490
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 24



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