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Sunan Abi Dawud

Trials and Fierce Battles (Kitab Al-Fitan Wa Al-Malahim)

كتاب الفتن والملاحم

حَدَّثَنَا مُؤَمَّلُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ الْحَرَّانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ شُعَيْبٍ، عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ دِهْقَانَ، قَالَ كُنَّا فِي غَزْوَةِ الْقُسْطَنْطِينِيَّةِ بِذُلُقْيَةَ فَأَقْبَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ فِلَسْطِينَ - مِنْ أَشْرَافِهِمْ وَخِيَارِهِمْ يَعْرِفُونَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ يُقَالُ لَهُ هَانِئُ بْنُ كُلْثُومِ بْنِ شَرِيكٍ الْكِنَانِيُّ - فَسَلَّمَ عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي زَكَرِيَّا وَكَانَ يَعْرِفُ لَهُ حَقَّهُ قَالَ لَنَا خَالِدٌ فَحَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أَبِي زَكَرِيَّا قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أُمَّ الدَّرْدَاءِ تَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الدَّرْدَاءِ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ كُلُّ ذَنْبٍ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَغْفِرَهُ إِلاَّ مَنْ مَاتَ مُشْرِكًا أَوْ مُؤْمِنٌ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ هَانِئُ بْنُ كُلْثُومٍ سَمِعْتُ مَحْمُودَ بْنَ الرَّبِيعِ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَهُ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا فَاعْتَبَطَ بِقَتْلِهِ لَمْ يَقْبَلِ اللَّهُ مِنْهُ صَرْفًا وَلاَ عَدْلاً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ لَنَا خَالِدٌ ثُمَّ حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ أَبِي زَكَرِيَّا عَنْ أُمِّ الدَّرْدَاءِ عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لاَ يَزَالُ الْمُؤْمِنُ مُعْنِقًا صَالِحًا مَا لَمْ يُصِبْ دَمًا حَرَامًا فَإِذَا أَصَابَ دَمًا حَرَامًا بَلَّحَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ وَحَدَّثَ هَانِئُ بْنُ كُلْثُومٍ عَنْ مَحْمُودِ بْنِ الرَّبِيعِ عَنْ عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِثْلَهُ سَوَاءً ‏.‏


Chapter: Regarding The Gravity Of Killing A Believer

Narrated AbudDarda' and Ubadah ibn as-Samit: Khalid ibn Dihqan said: When we were engaged in the battle of Constantinople at Dhuluqiyyah, a man of the people of Palestine, who was one of their nobility and elite and whose rank was known to them, came forward. He was called Hani ibn Kulthum ibn Sharik al-Kinani. He greeted Abdullah ibn Zakariyya who knew his rank. Khalid said to us: Abdullah ibn AbuZakariyya told us: I heard Umm ad-Darda' say: I heard AbudDarda' say: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: It is hoped that Allah may forgive every sin, except in the case of one who dies a polytheist, or one who purposely kills a believer. Hani ibn Kulthum ar-Rabi' then said: I heard Mahmud ibn ar-Rabi' transmitting a tradition from Ubadah ibn as-Samit who transmitted from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) who said: If a man kills a believer unjustly, Allah will not accept any action or duty of his, obligatory or supererogatory. Khalid then said to us: Ibn AbuZakariyya transmitted a tradition to us from Umm ad-Darda' on the authority of AbudDarda' from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) who said: A believer will continue to go on quickly and well so long as he does not shed unlawful blood; when he sheds unlawful blood, he becomes slow and heavy-footed. A similar tradition has been transmitted by Hani ibn Kulthum from Mahmud ibn ar-Rabi' on the authority of Ubadah ibn as-Samit from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH). Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 37 Hadith no 4270
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 36 Hadith no 4257


حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَمْرٍو، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُبَارَكٍ، حَدَّثَنَا صَدَقَةُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، أَوْ غَيْرُهُ قَالَ قَالَ خَالِدُ بْنُ دِهْقَانَ سَأَلْتُ يَحْيَى بْنَ يَحْيَى الْغَسَّانِيَّ عَنْ قَوْلِهِ ‏"‏ اعْتَبَطَ بِقَتْلِهِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي الْفِتْنَةِ فَيَقْتُلُ أَحَدُهُمْ فَيَرَى أَنَّهُ عَلَى هُدًى لاَ يَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ - يَعْنِي - مِنْ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَقَالَ فَاعْتَبَطَ يَصُبُّ دَمَهُ صَبًّا ‏.‏

Khalid b. Dihqan said: I asked Yahya b. Yahya al-Ghassani about the word i'tabata bi qatlihi spoken by him (as mentioned in the previous tradition). He said: It means those people who fight during the period of commotion (fitnah), and one of them kills (the other people) presuming that he is in the right, so he does not beg pardon of Allah of that (sin). Abu Dawud said: And he said: The word fa'tabata means "he shed blood profusely" Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 37 Hadith no 4271
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 36 Hadith no 4258


حَدَّثَنَا مُسْلِمُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ، عَنْ مُجَالِدِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ، أَنَّ خَارِجَةَ بْنَ زَيْدٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ زَيْدَ بْنَ ثَابِتٍ، فِي هَذَا الْمَكَانِ يَقُولُ أُنْزِلَتْ هَذِهِ الآيَةُ ‏{‏ وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا ‏}‏ بَعْدَ الَّتِي فِي الْفُرْقَانِ ‏{‏ وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ وَلاَ يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ‏}‏ بِسِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ ‏.‏

Narrated Zayd ibn Thabit: The verse "If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein for ever" was revealed six months after the verse "And those who invoke not with Allah any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred, except for just cause in Surat al-Furqan. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 37 Hadith no 4272
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 36 Hadith no 4259


حَدَّثَنَا يُوسُفُ بْنُ مُوسَى، حَدَّثَنَا جَرِيرٌ، عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، أَوْ حَدَّثَنِي الْحَكَمُ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، قَالَ سَأَلْتُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ فَقَالَ لَمَّا نَزَلَتِ الَّتِي فِي الْفُرْقَانِ ‏{‏ وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ وَلاَ يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ‏}‏ قَالَ مُشْرِكُو أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ قَدْ قَتَلْنَا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَدَعَوْنَا مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ وَأَتَيْنَا الْفَوَاحِشَ ‏.‏ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ ‏{‏ إِلاَّ مَنْ تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلاً صَالِحًا فَأُولَئِكَ يُبَدِّلُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ حَسَنَاتٍ ‏}‏ فَهَذِهِ لأُولَئِكَ قَالَ وَأَمَّا الَّتِي فِي النِّسَاءِ ‏{‏ وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ ‏}‏ الآيَةُ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا عَرَفَ شَرَائِعَ الإِسْلاَمِ ثُمَّ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ لاَ تَوْبَةَ لَهُ ‏.‏ فَذَكَرْتُ هَذَا لِمُجَاهِدٍ فَقَالَ إِلاَّ مَنْ نَدِمَ ‏.‏

Sa'id bin Jubair said: I asked Ibn 'Abbas (about the verse relating to intentional homicide in Surat An-Nisa') He said: When the verse "Those who invoke not with Allah any other god, nor slay such life as Allah had made sacred, except for just cause" was revealed, the polytheists of Mecca said: We have killed the soul prohibited by Allah, invoked another god along with Allah for worship, and committed shameful deeds. So Allah revealed the verse "unless he repents, believes, and works righteous deeds, for Allah will change the evil of such persons into good." This is meant for them. As regards the verse "if a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell" He said: If a man knows the command of Islam and intentionally kills a believer, his repentance wil not be accepted. I then mentioned it to Mujahid. He said: "Except the one who is ashamed (of his sin)." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 37 Hadith no 4273
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 36 Hadith no 4260


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ، حَدَّثَنِي يَعْلَى، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، فِي هَذِهِ الْقِصَّةِ فِي ‏{‏ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ ‏}‏ أَهْلُ الشِّرْكِ قَالَ وَنَزَلَ ‏{‏ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ ‏}‏ ‏.‏

The tradition mentioned above has also been transmitted by Sa'id b. Jubair from Ibn 'Abbas through a different chain of narrators. Ibn 'Abbas said: The verse: "Those who invoke not with Allah" applied to polytheists. He said: About them another verse, "Say: O my servants who have transgressed against their souls" was also revealed. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 37 Hadith no 4274
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 36 Hadith no 4261


حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ بْنِ النُّعْمَانِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، قَالَ ‏{‏ وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُتَعَمِّدًا ‏}‏ قَالَ مَا نَسَخَهَا شَىْءٌ ‏.‏

Ibn 'Abbas said: No other verse has repealed the verse "If a man kills a believer intentionally" Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 37 Hadith no 4275
Web reference: Sunan Abu Dawood Book 36 Hadith no 4262



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