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Muwatta Imam Malik

Zakat

كتاب الزكاة

حَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، عَنْ زُرَيْقِ بْنِ حَيَّانَ، - وَكَانَ زُرَيْقٌ عَلَى جَوَازِ مِصْرَ فِي زَمَانِ الْوَلِيدِ وَسُلَيْمَانَ وَعُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ - فَذَكَرَ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ كَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ أَنِ انْظُرْ مَنْ مَرَّ بِكَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَخُذْ مِمَّا ظَهَرَ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ مِمَّا يُدِيرُونَ مِنَ التِّجَارَاتِ مِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ دِينَارًا دِينَارًا فَمَا نَقَصَ فَبِحِسَابِ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا فَإِنْ نَقَصَتْ ثُلُثَ دِينَارٍ فَدَعْهَا وَلاَ تَأْخُذْ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا وَمَنْ مَرَّ بِكَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ فَخُذْ مِمَّا يُدِيرُونَ مِنَ التِّجَارَاتِ مِنْ كُلِّ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا دِينَارًا فَمَا نَقَصَ فَبِحِسَابِ ذَلِكَ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ عَشَرَةَ دَنَانِيرَ فَإِنْ نَقَصَتْ ثُلُثَ دِينَارٍ فَدَعْهَا وَلاَ تَأْخُذْ مِنْهَا شَيْئًا وَاكْتُبْ لَهُمْ بِمَا تَأْخُذُ مِنْهُمْ كِتَابًا إِلَى مِثْلِهِ مِنَ الْحَوْلِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِيمَا يُدَارُ مِنَ الْعُرُوضِ لِلتِّجَارَاتِ أَنَّ الرَّجُلَ إِذَا صَدَّقَ مَالَهُ ثُمَّ اشْتَرَى بِهِ عَرْضًا بَزًّا أَوْ رَقِيقًا أَوْ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ بَاعَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُؤَدِّي مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْمَالِ زَكَاةً حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ صَدَّقَهُ وَأَنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يَبِعْ ذَلِكَ الْعَرْضَ سِنِينَ لَمْ يَجِبْ عَلَيْهِ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْعَرْضِ زَكَاةٌ وَإِنْ طَالَ زَمَانُهُ فَإِذَا بَاعَهُ فَلَيْسَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ زَكَاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الرَّجُلِ يَشْتَرِي بِالذَّهَبِ أَوِ الْوَرِقِ حِنْطَةً أَوْ تَمْرًا أَوْ غَيْرَهُمَا لِلتِّجَارَةِ ثُمَّ يُمْسِكُهَا حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ ثُمَّ يَبِيعُهَا أَنَّ عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا الزَّكَاةَ حِينَ يَبِيعُهَا إِذَا بَلَغَ ثَمَنُهَا مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ مِثْلَ الْحَصَادِ يَحْصُدُهُ الرَّجُلُ مِنْ أَرْضِهِ وَلاَ مِثْلَ الْجِدَادِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ مَالٍ عِنْدَ رَجُلٍ يُدِيرُهُ لِلتِّجَارَةِ وَلاَ يَنِضُّ لِصَاحِبِهِ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَإِنَّهُ يَجْعَلُ لَهُ شَهْرًا مِنَ السَّنَةِ يُقَوِّمُ فِيهِ مَا كَانَ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ عَرْضٍ لِلتِّجَارَةِ وَيُحْصِي فِيهِ مَا كَانَ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ نَقْدٍ أَوْ عَيْنٍ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ ذَلِكَ كُلُّهُ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَإِنَّهُ يُزَكِّيهِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ تَجَرَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَتْجُرْ سَوَاءٌ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِمْ إِلاَّ صَدَقَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ تَجَرُوا فِيهِ أَوْ لَمْ يَتْجُرُوا ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that Zurayqibn Hayyan, who was in charge of Egypt in the time of al-Walid,Sulayman, and Umar ibn Abd al-'Aziz, mentioned that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz had written to him saying, "Assess the muslims that you comeacross and take from what is apparent of their wealth and whatevermerchandise is in their charge, one dinar for every forty dinars, andthe same proportion from what is less than that down to twenty dinars,and if the amount falls short of that by one third of a dinar thenleave it and do not take anything from it. As for the people of theBook that you come across, take from the merchandise in their chargeone dinar for every twenty dinars, and the same proportion from whatis less than that down to ten dinars, and if the amount falls short byone third of a dinar leave it and do not take anything from it. Givethem a receipt for what you have taken f rom them until the same timenext year." Malik said, "The position among us (in Madina)concerning goods which are being managed for trading purposes is thatif a man pays zakat on his wealth, and then buys goods with it,whether cloth, slaves or something similar, and then sells them beforea year has elapsed over them, he does not pay zakat on that wealthuntil a year elapses over it from the day he paid zakat on it. He doesnot have to pay zakat on any of the goods if he does not sell them forsome years, and even if he keeps them for a very long time he stillonly has to pay zakat on them once when he sells them." Maliksaid, "The position among us concerning a man who uses gold or silverto buy wheat, dates, or whatever, for trading purposes and keeps ituntil a year has elapsed over it and then sells it, is that he onlyhas to pay zakat on it if and when he sells it, if the price reaches azakatable amount. This is therefore not the same as the harvest cropsthat a man reaps from his land, or the dates that he harvests from hispalms." Malik said, "A man who has wealth which he invests intrade, but which does not realise a zakatable profit for him, fixes amonth in the year when he takes stock of what goods he has fortrading, and counts the gold and silver that he has in ready money,and if all of it comes to a zakatable amount he pays zakat on it." Malik said, "The position is the same for muslims who tradeand muslims who do not. They only have to pay zakat once in any oneyear, whether they trade in that year or not." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 599
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 20


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، وَهُوَ يُسْأَلُ عَنِ الْكَنْزِ، مَا هُوَ فَقَالَ هُوَ الْمَالُ الَّذِي لاَ تُؤَدَّى مِنْهُ الزَّكَاةُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Dinar said, "Iheard Abdullah ibn Umar being asked what kanz was and he said, 'It iswealth on which zakat has not been paid.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 600
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 21


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ السَّمَّانِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ مَنْ كَانَ عِنْدَهُ مَالٌ لَمْ يُؤَدِّ زَكَاتَهُ مُثِّلَ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ شُجَاعًا أَقْرَعَ لَهُ زَبِيبَتَانِ يَطْلُبُهُ حَتَّى يُمْكِنَهُ يَقُولُ أَنَا كَنْزُكَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar fromAbu's-Salih as-Samman that Abu Hurayra used to say, "Anyone who haswealth on which he has not paid zakat will, on the day of rising, findhis wealth made to resemble a whiteheaded serpent with a sac of venomin each cheek which will seek him out until it has him in its power,saying, 'I am the wealth that you had hidden away.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 601
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 22


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ قَرَأَ كِتَابَ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ قَالَ فَوَجَدْتُ فِيهِ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ كِتَابُ الصَّدَقَةِ فِي أَرْبَعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ مِنَ الإِبِلِ فَدُونَهَا الْغَنَمُ فِي كُلِّ خَمْسٍ شَاةٌ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَثَلاَثِينَ ابْنَةُ مَخَاضٍ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنِ ابْنَةُ مَخَاضٍ فَابْنُ لَبُونٍ ذَكَرٌ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَأَرْبَعِينَ بِنْتُ لَبُونٍ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى سِتِّينَ حِقَّةٌ طَرُوقَةُ الْفَحْلِ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَسَبْعِينَ جَذَعَةٌ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى تِسْعِينَ ابْنَتَا لَبُونٍ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى عِشْرِينَ وَمِائَةٍ حِقَّتَانِ طَرُوقَتَا الْفَحْلِ فَمَا زَادَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ مِنَ الإِبِلِ فَفِي كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ بِنْتُ لَبُونٍ وَفِي كُلِّ خَمْسِينَ حِقَّةٌ وَفِي سَائِمَةِ الْغَنَمِ إِذَا بَلَغَتْ أَرْبَعِينَ إِلَى عِشْرِينَ وَمِائَةٍ شَاةٌ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى مِائَتَيْنِ شَاتَانِ وَفِيمَا فَوْقَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى ثَلاَثِمِائَةٍ ثَلاَثُ شِيَاهٍ فَمَا زَادَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فَفِي كُلِّ مِائَةٍ شَاةٌ وَلاَ يُخْرَجُ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ تَيْسٌ وَلاَ هَرِمَةٌ وَلاَ ذَاتُ عَوَارٍ إِلاَّ مَا شَاءَ الْمُصَّدِّقُ وَلاَ يُجْمَعُ بَيْنَ مُفْتَرِقٍ وَلاَ يُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَ مُجْتَمِعٍ خَشْيَةَ الصَّدَقَةِ وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ خَلِيطَيْنِ فَإِنَّهُمَا يَتَرَاجَعَانِ بَيْنَهُمَا بِالسَّوِيَّةِ وَفِي الرِّقَةِ إِذَا بَلَغَتْ خَمْسَ أَوَاقٍ رُبُعُ الْعُشْرِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had read what Umar ibn al-Khattab had written about zakat, and in it he found: "In thename of Allah, the Merciful, the ompassionate." The Book ofZakat. On twenty-four camels or less zakat is paid withsheep, one ewe for every five camels. On anything above that,up to thirty-five camels, a she-camel in its second year, and, ifthere is no she camel in its second year, a male camel in its thirdyear. On anything above that, up to forty-five camels, a she-camel in its third year. On anything above that, up to sixtycamels, a she camel in its fourth year that is ready to be sired. On anything above that, up to seventy-five camels, a she-camel inits fifth year. On anything above that, up to ninety camels,two she-camels in their third year. On anything above that,up to one hundred and twenty camels, two she-camels in their fourthyear that are ready to be sired. On any number of camelsabove that, for every forty camels, a she-camel in its third year, andfor every fifty, a she-camel in its fourth year. On grazingsheep and goats, if they come to forty or more, up to one hundred andtwenty head, one ewe. On anything above that, up to twohundred head, two ewes. On anything above that, up to threehundred, three ewes. On anything above that, for everyhundred, one ewe. A ram should not be taken for zakat. nor anold or an injured ewe, except as the zakat-collector thinks fit. Those separated should not be gathered together nor should thosegathered together be separated in order to avoid paying zakat. Whatever belongs to two associates is settled between themproportionately. On silver, if it reaches five awaq (twohundred dirhams), one fortieth is paid." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 602
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 23


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ حُمَيْدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْمَكِّيِّ، عَنْ طَاوُسٍ الْيَمَانِيِّ، أَنَّ مُعَاذَ بْنَ جَبَلٍ الأَنْصَارِيَّ، أَخَذَ مِنْ ثَلاَثِينَ بَقَرَةً تَبِيعًا وَمِنْ أَرْبَعِينَ بَقَرَةً مُسِنَّةً وَأُتِيَ بِمَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ فَأَبَى أَنْ يَأْخُذَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا وَقَالَ لَمْ أَسْمَعْ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيهِ شَيْئًا حَتَّى أَلْقَاهُ فَأَسْأَلَهُ ‏.‏ فَتُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقْدُمَ مُعَاذُ بْنُ جَبَلٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِيمَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ غَنَمٌ عَلَى رَاعِيَيْنِ مُفْتَرِقَيْنِ أَوْ عَلَى رِعَاءٍ مُفْتَرِقِينَ فِي بُلْدَانٍ شَتَّى أَنَّ ذَلِكَ يُجْمَعُ كُلُّهُ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ فَيُؤَدِّي مِنْهُ صَدَقَتَهُ وَمِثْلُ ذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ يَكُونُ لَهُ الذَّهَبُ أَوِ الْوَرِقُ مُتَفَرِّقَةً فِي أَيْدِي نَاسٍ شَتَّى أَنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يَجْمَعَهَا فَيُخْرِجَ مِنْهَا مَا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ فِي ذَلِكَ مِنْ زَكَاتِهَا ‏.‏ وَقَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ لَهُ الضَّأْنُ وَالْمَعْزُ أَنَّهَا تُجْمَعُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ فَإِنْ كَانَ فِيهَا مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ صُدِّقَتْ وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا هِيَ غَنَمٌ كُلُّهَا وَفِي كِتَابِ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ وَفِي سَائِمَةِ الْغَنَمِ إِذَا بَلَغَتْ أَرْبَعِينَ شَاةً شَاةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الضَّأْنُ هِيَ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الْمَعْزِ وَلَمْ يَجِبْ عَلَى رَبِّهَا إِلاَّ شَاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ أَخَذَ الْمُصَدِّقُ تِلْكَ الشَّاةَ الَّتِي وَجَبَتْ عَلَى رَبِّ الْمَالِ مِنَ الضَّأْنِ وَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْمَعْزُ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الضَّأْنِ أُخِذَ مِنْهَا فَإِنِ اسْتَوَى الضَّأْنُ وَالْمَعْزُ أَخَذَ الشَّاةَ مِنْ أَيَّتِهِمَا شَاءَ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الإِبِلُ الْعِرَابُ وَالْبُخْتُ يُجْمَعَانِ عَلَى رَبِّهِمَا فِي الصَّدَقَةِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا هِيَ إِبِلٌ كُلُّهَا فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْعِرَابُ هِيَ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الْبُخْتِ وَلَمْ يَجِبْ عَلَى رَبِّهَا إِلاَّ بَعِيرٌ وَاحِدٌ فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنَ الْعِرَابِ صَدَقَتَهَا فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْبُخْتُ أَكْثَرَ فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنْهَا فَإِنِ اسْتَوَتْ فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنْ أَيَّتِهِمَا شَاءَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الْبَقَرُ وَالْجَوَامِيسُ تُجْمَعُ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ عَلَى رَبِّهَا ‏.‏ وَقَالَ إِنَّمَا هِيَ بَقَرٌ كُلُّهَا فَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْبَقَرُ هِيَ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الْجَوَامِيسِ وَلاَ تَجِبُ عَلَى رَبِّهَا إِلاَّ بَقَرَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنَ الْبَقَرِ صَدَقَتَهُمَا وَإِنْ كَانَتِ الْجَوَامِيسُ أَكْثَرَ فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنْهَا فَإِنِ اسْتَوَتْ فَلْيَأْخُذْ مِنْ أَيَّتِهِمَا شَاءَ فَإِذَا وَجَبَتْ فِي ذَلِكَ الصَّدَقَةُ صُدِّقَ الصِّنْفَانِ جَمِيعًا ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ أَفَادَ مَاشِيَةً مِنْ إِبِلٍ أَوْ بَقَرٍ أَوْ غَنَمٍ فَلاَ صَدَقَةَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ أَفَادَهَا إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ قَبْلَهَا نِصَابُ مَاشِيَةٍ وَالنِّصَابُ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ إِمَّا خَمْسُ ذَوْدٍ مِنَ الإِبِلِ وَإِمَّا ثَلاَثُونَ بَقَرَةً وَإِمَّا أَرْبَعُونَ شَاةً فَإِذَا كَانَ لِلرَّجُلِ خَمْسُ ذَوْدٍ مِنَ الإِبِلِ أَوْ ثَلاَثُونَ بَقَرَةً أَوْ أَرْبَعُونَ شَاةً ثُمَّ أَفَادَ إِلَيْهَا إِبِلاً أَوْ بَقَرًا أَوْ غَنَمًا بِاشْتِرَاءٍ أَوْ هِبَةٍ أَوْ مِيرَاثٍ فَإِنَّهُ يُصَدِّقُهَا مَعَ مَاشِيَتِهِ حِينَ يُصَدِّقُهَا وَإِنْ لَمْ يَحُلْ عَلَى الْفَائِدَةِ الْحَوْلُ وَإِنْ كَانَ مَا أَفَادَ مِنَ الْمَاشِيَةِ إِلَى مَاشِيَتِهِ قَدْ صُدِّقَتْ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَشْتَرِيَهَا بِيَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ أَوْ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَرِثَهَا بِيَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ فَإِنَّهُ يُصَدِّقُهَا مَعَ مَاشِيَتِهِ حِينَ يُصَدِّقُ مَاشِيَتَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُ الْوَرِقِ يُزَكِّيهَا الرَّجُلُ ثُمَّ يَشْتَرِي بِهَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ آخَرَ عَرْضًا وَقَدْ وَجَبَتْ عَلَيْهِ فِي عَرْضِهِ ذَلِكَ إِذَا بَاعَهُ الصَّدَقَةُ فَيُخْرِجُ الرَّجُلُ الآخَرُ صَدَقَتَهَا هَذَا الْيَوْمَ وَيَكُونُ الآخَرُ قَدْ صَدَّقَهَا مِنَ الْغَدِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ كَانَتْ لَهُ غَنَمٌ لاَ تَجِبُ فِيهَا الصَّدَقَةُ فَاشْتَرَى إِلَيْهَا غَنَمًا كَثِيرَةً تَجِبُ فِي دُونِهَا الصَّدَقَةُ أَوْ وَرِثَهَا أَنَّهُ لاَ تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْغَنَمِ كُلِّهَا الصَّدَقَةُ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ أَفَادَهَا بِاشْتِرَاءٍ أَوْ مِيرَاثٍ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ كُلَّ مَا كَانَ عِنْدَ الرَّجُلِ مِنْ مَاشِيَةٍ لاَ تَجِبُ فِيهَا الصَّدَقَةُ مِنْ إِبِلٍ أَوْ بَقَرٍ أَوْ غَنَمٍ فَلَيْسَ يُعَدُّ ذَلِكَ نِصَابَ مَالٍ حَتَّى يَكُونَ فِي كُلِّ صِنْفٍ مِنْهَا مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ فَذَلِكَ النِّصَابُ الَّذِي يُصَدِّقُ مَعَهُ مَا أَفَادَ إِلَيْهِ صَاحِبُهُ مِنْ قَلِيلٍ أَوْ كَثِيرٍ مِنَ الْمَاشِيَةِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلَوْ كَانَتْ لِرَجُلٍ إِبِلٌ أَوْ بَقَرٌ أَوْ غَنَمٌ تَجِبُ فِي كُلِّ صِنْفٍ مِنْهَا الصَّدَقَةُ ثُمَّ أَفَادَ إِلَيْهَا بَعِيرًا أَوْ بَقَرَةً أَوْ شَاةً صَدَّقَهَا مَعَ مَاشِيَتِهِ حِينَ يُصَدِّقُهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ يَحْيَى قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحَبُّ مَا سَمِعْتُ إِلَىَّ فِي هَذَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الْفَرِيضَةِ تَجِبُ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ فَلاَ تُوجَدُ عِنْدَهُ أَنَّهَا إِنْ كَانَتِ ابْنَةَ مَخَاضٍ فَلَمْ تُوجَدْ أُخِذَ مَكَانَهَا ابْنُ لَبُونٍ ذَكَرٌ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ بِنْتَ لَبُونٍ أَوْ حِقَّةً أَوْ جَذَعَةً وَلَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدَهُ كَانَ عَلَى رَبِّ الإِبِلِ أَنْ يَبْتَاعَهَا لَهُ حَتَّى يَأْتِيَهُ بِهَا وَلاَ أُحِبُّ أَنْ يُعْطِيَهُ قِيمَتَهَا ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الإِبِلِ النَّوَاضِحِ وَالْبَقَرِ السَّوَانِي وَبَقَرِ الْحَرْثِ إِنِّي أَرَى أَنْ يُؤْخَذَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ كُلِّهِ إِذَا وَجَبَتْ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Humayd ibn Qays al-Makki fromTawus al Yamani that from thirty cows, Muadh ibn Jabal took one cow inits second year, and from forty cows, one cow in its third or fourthyear, and when less than that (i.e. thirty cows) was brought to him herefused to take anything from it. He said, "I have not heard anythingabout it from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace. When I meet him, I will ask him." But the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, died before Muadh ibnJabal returned. Yahya said that Malik said, "The best that Ihave heard about some one who has sheep or goats with two or moreshepherds in different places is that they are added together and theowner then pays the zakat on them. This is the same situation as a manwho has gold and silver scattered in the hands of various people. Hemust add it all u p and pay whatever zakat there is to pay on the sumtotal." Yahya said that Malik said, about a man who had bothsheep and goats, that they were added up together for the zakat to beassessed, and if between them they came to a number on which zakat wasdue, he paid zakat on them. Malik added, "They are all considered assheep, and in Umar ibn al-Khattab's book it says, 'On grazing sheepand goats, if they come to forty or more, one ewe.' " Maliksaid, "If there are more sheep than goats and their owner only has topay one ewe, the zakat collector takes the ewe from the sheep. Ifthere are more goats than sheep, he takes it from the goats. If thereis an equal number of sheep and goats, he takes the ewe from whicheverkind he wishes." Yahya said that Malik said, "Similarly,Arabian camels and Bactrian camels are added up together in order toassess the zakat that the owner has to pay. They are all considered ascamels. If there are more Arabian camels than Bactrians and the owneronly has to pay one camel, the zakat collector takes it from theArabian ones. If, however, there are more Bactrian camels he takes itfrom those. If there is an equal number of both, he takes the camelfrom whichever kind he wishes." Malik said, "Similarly, cowsand water buffaloes are added up together and are all considered ascattle. If there are more cows than water buffalo and the owner onlyhas to pay one cow, the zakat collector takes it from the cows. Ifthere are more water buffalo, he takes it from them. If there is anequal number of both, he takes the cow from whichever kind he wishes.So if zakat is necessary, it is assessed taking both kinds as onegroup." Yahya said that Malik said, "No zakat is due fromanyone who comes into possession of livestock, whether camels orcattle or sheep and goats, until a year has elapsed over them from theday he acquired them, unless he already had in his possession a nisabof livestock. (The nisab is the minimum amount on which zakat has tobe paid, either five head of camels, or thirty cattle, or forty sheepand goats). If he already had five head of camels, or thirty cattle,or forty sheep and goats, and he then acquired additional camels, orcattle, or sheep and goats, either by trade, or gift, or inheritance,he must pay zakat on them when he pays the zakat on the livestock healready has, even if a year has not elapsed over the acquisition. Andeven if the additional livestock that he acquired has had zakat takenfrom it the day before he bought it, or the day before he inheritedit, he must still pay the zakat on it when he pays the zakat on thelivestock he already has " Yahya said that Malik said, "Thisis the same situation as some one who has some silver on which he paysthe zakat and then uses to buy some goods with from somebody else. Hethen has to pay zakat on those goods when he sells them. It could bethat one man will have to pay zakat on them one day, and by thefollowing day the other man will also have to pay." Maliksaid, in the case of a man who had sheep and goats which did not reachthe zakatable amount, and who then bought or inherited an additionalnumber of sheep and goats well above the zakatable amount, that he didnot have to pay zakat on all his sheep and goats until a year hadelapsed over them from the day he acquired the new animals, whether hebought them or inherited them.This was because none of the livestockthat a man had, whether it be camels, or cattle, or sheep and goats,was counted as a nisab until there was enough of any one kind for himto have to pay zakat on it. This was the nisab which is used forassessing the zakat on what the owner had additionally acquired,whether it were a large or small amount of livestock. Maliksaid, "If a man has enough camels, or cattle, or sheep and goats, forhim to have to pay zakat on each kind, and then he acquires anothercamel, or cow, or sheep, or goat, it must be included with the rest ofhis animals when he pays zakat on them " Yahya said thatMalik said, "This is what I like most out of what I heard about thematter." Malik said, in the case of a man who does not havethe animal required of him for the zakat, "If it is a two-year-oldshe-camel that he does not have, a three-year-old male camel is takeninstead. If it is a three- or four- or five-year-old she-camel that hedoes not have, then he must buy the required animal so that he givesthe collector what is due. I do not like it if the owner gives thecollector the equivalent value." Malik said, about camelsused for carrying water, and cattle used for working water-wheels orploughing, "In my opinion such animals are included when assessingzakat." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 603
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 24


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ ثَوْرِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ الدِّيلِيِّ، عَنِ ابْنٍ لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سُفْيَانَ الثَّقَفِيِّ، عَنْ جَدِّهِ، سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، بَعَثَهُ مُصَدِّقًا فَكَانَ يَعُدُّ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِالسَّخْلِ فَقَالُوا أَتَعُدُّ عَلَيْنَا بِالسَّخْلِ وَلاَ تَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ‏.‏ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ ذَكَرَ لَهُ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ نَعَمْ تَعُدُّ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالسَّخْلَةِ يَحْمِلُهَا الرَّاعِي وَلاَ تَأْخُذُهَا وَلاَ تَأْخُذُ الأَكُولَةَ وَلاَ الرُّبَّى وَلاَ الْمَاخِضَ وَلاَ فَحْلَ الْغَنَمِ وَتَأْخُذُ الْجَذَعَةَ وَالثَّنِيَّةَ وَذَلِكَ عَدْلٌ بَيْنَ غِذَاءِ الْغَنَمِ وَخِيَارِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالسَّخْلَةُ الصَّغِيرَةُ حِينَ تُنْتَجُ ‏.‏ وَالرُّبَّى الَّتِي قَدْ وَضَعَتْ فَهِيَ تُرَبِّي وَلَدَهَا ‏.‏ وَالْمَاخِضُ هِيَ الْحَامِلُ ‏.‏ وَالأَكُولَةُ هِيَ شَاةُ اللَّحْمِ الَّتِي تُسَمَّنُ لِتُؤْكَلَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي الرَّجُلِ تَكُونُ لَهُ الْغَنَمُ لاَ تَجِبُ فِيهَا الصَّدَقَةُ فَتَوَالَدُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهَا الْمُصَدِّقُ بِيَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ فَتَبْلُغُ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ بِوِلاَدَتِهَا قَالَ مَالِكٌ إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الْغَنَمُ بِأَوْلاَدِهَا مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ فَعَلَيْهِ فِيهَا الصَّدَقَةُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ وِلاَدَةَ الْغَنَمِ مِنْهَا وَذَلِكَ مُخَالِفٌ لِمَا أُفِيدَ مِنْهَا بِاشْتِرَاءٍ أَوْ هِبَةٍ أَوْ مِيرَاثٍ وَمِثْلُ ذَلِكَ الْعَرْضُ لاَ يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنُهُ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ ثُمَّ يَبِيعُهُ صَاحِبُهُ فَيَبْلُغُ بِرِبْحِهِ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ فَيُصَدِّقُ رِبْحَهُ مَعَ رَأْسِ الْمَالِ وَلَوْ كَانَ رِبْحُهُ فَائِدَةً أَوْ مِيرَاثًا لَمْ تَجِبْ فِيهِ الصَّدَقَةُ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ أَفَادَهُ أَوْ وَرِثَهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَغِذَاءُ الْغَنَمِ مِنْهَا كَمَا رِبْحُ الْمَالِ مِنْهُ غَيْرَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ يَخْتَلِفُ فِي وَجْهٍ آخَرَ أَنَّهُ إِذَا كَانَ لِلرَّجُلِ مِنَ الذَّهَبِ أَوِ الْوَرِقِ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ ثُمَّ أَفَادَ إِلَيْهِ مَالاً تَرَكَ مَالَهُ الَّذِي أَفَادَ فَلَمْ يُزَكِّهِ مَعَ مَالِهِ الأَوَّلِ حِينَ يُزَكِّيهِ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَى الْفَائِدَةِ الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ أَفَادَهَا وَلَوْ كَانَتْ لِرَجُلٍ غَنَمٌ أَوْ بَقَرٌ أَوْ إِبِلٌ تَجِبُ فِي كُلِّ صِنْفٍ مِنْهَا الصَّدَقَةُ ثُمَّ أَفَادَ إِلَيْهَا بَعِيرًا أَوْ بَقَرَةً أَوْ شَاةً صَدَّقَهَا مَعَ صِنْفِ مَا أَفَادَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ حِينَ يُصَدِّقُهُ إِذَا كَانَ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الصِّنْفِ الَّذِي أَفَادَ نِصَابُ مَاشِيَةٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَهَذَا أَحْسَنُ مَا سَمِعْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Thawr ibn Zayd ad-Dili from ason of Abdullah ibn Sufyan ath-Thaqafi from his grandfather Sufyan ibnAbdullah that Umar ibn al-Khattab once sent him to collect zakat. Heused to include sakhlas (when assessing zakat), and they said, "Do youinclude sakhlas even though you do not take them (as payment)?" Hereturned to Umar ibn al-Khattab and mentioned that to him and Umarsaid, "Yes, you include a sakhla which the shepherd is carrying, butyou do not take it. Neither do you take an akula, or a rubba, or amakhid, or male sheep and goats in their second and third years, andthis is a just compromise between the young of sheep and goats and thebest of them." Malik said, "A sakhla is a newborn lamb orkid. A rubba is a mother that is looking after her offspring, a makhidis a pregnant ewe or goat, and an akula is a sheep or goat that isbeing fattened for meat." Malik said, about a man who hadsheep and goats on which he did not have to pay any zakat, but whichincreased by birth to a zakatable amount on the day before the zakatcollector came to them, "If the number of sheep and goats along withtheir (newborn) offspring reaches a zakatable amount then the man hasto pay zakat on them. That is because the offspring of the sheep arepart of the flock itself. It is not the same situation as when someone acquires sheep by buying them, or is given them, or inherits them.Rather, it is like when merchandise whose value does not come to azakatable amount is sold, and with the profit that accrues it thencomes to a zakatable amount. The owner must then pay zakat on both hisprofit and his original capital, taken together. If his profit hadbeen a chance acquisition or an inheritance he would not have had topay zakat on it until one year had elapsed over it from the day he hadacquired it or inherited it." Malik said, "The young of sheepand goats are part of the flock, in the same way that profit fromwealth is part of that wealth. There is, however, one difference, inthat when a man has a zakatable amount of gold and silver, and thenacquires an additional amount of wealth, he leaves aside the wealth hehas acquired and does not pay zakat on it when he pays the zakat onhis original wealth but waits until a year has elapsed over what hehas acquired from the day he acquired it. Whereas a man who has azakatable amount of sheep and goats, or cattle, or camels, and thenacquires another camel, cow, sheep or goat, pays zakat on it at thesame time that he pays the zakat on the others of its kind, if healready has a zakatable amount of livestock of that particular kind." Malik said, "This is the best of what I have heard aboutthis. " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 604
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 26



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