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Muwatta Imam Malik

Zakat

كتاب الزكاة

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ الثِّقَةِ، عِنْدَهُ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، وَعَنْ بُسْرِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ فِيمَا سَقَتِ السَّمَاءُ وَالْعُيُونُ وَالْبَعْلِ الْعُشْرُ وَفِيمَا سُقِيَ بِالنَّضْحِ نِصْفُ الْعُشْرِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from a reliable source fromSulayman ibn Yasar and from Busr ibn Said that the Messenger of Allah,may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "On land that iswatered by rain or springs or any natural means there is (zakat to payof) a tenth. On irrigated land there is (zakat of) a twentieth (topay)." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 611
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 34


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ زِيَادِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ لاَ يُؤْخَذُ فِي صَدَقَةِ النَّخْلِ الْجُعْرُورُ وَلاَ مُصْرَانُ الْفَارَةِ وَلاَ عَذْقُ ابْنِ حُبَيْقٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَهُوَ يُعَدُّ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الْمَالِ وَلاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ الْغَنَمُ تُعَدُّ عَلَى صَاحِبِهَا بِسِخَالِهَا وَالسَّخْلُ لاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ وَقَدْ يَكُونُ فِي الأَمْوَالِ ثِمَارٌ لاَ تُؤْخَذُ الصَّدَقَةُ مِنْهَا مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْبُرْدِيُّ وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُ لاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَدْنَاهُ كَمَا لاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ خِيَارِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَإِنَّمَا تُؤْخَذُ الصَّدَقَةُ مِنْ أَوْسَاطِ الْمَالِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ لاَ يُخْرَصُ مِنَ الثِّمَارِ إِلاَّ النَّخِيلُ وَالأَعْنَابُ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يُخْرَصُ حِينَ يَبْدُو صَلاَحُهُ وَيَحِلُّ بَيْعُهُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ ثَمَرَ النَّخِيلِ وَالأَعْنَابِ يُؤْكَلُ رُطَبًا وَعِنَبًا فَيُخْرَصُ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ لِلتَّوْسِعَةِ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلِئَلاَّ يَكُونَ عَلَى أَحَدٍ فِي ذَلِكَ ضِيقٌ فَيُخْرَصُ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ يُخَلَّى بَيْنَهُمْ وَبَيْنَهُ يَأْكُلُونَهُ كَيْفَ شَاءُوا ثُمَّ يُؤَدُّونَ مِنْهُ الزَّكَاةَ عَلَى مَا خُرِصَ عَلَيْهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَأَمَّا مَا لاَ يُؤْكَلُ رَطْبًا وَإِنَّمَا يُؤْكَلُ بَعْدَ حَصَادِهِ مِنَ الْحُبُوبِ كُلِّهَا فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يُخْرَصُ وَإِنَّمَا عَلَى أَهْلِهَا فِيهَا إِذَا حَصَدُوهَا وَدَقُّوهَا وَطَيَّبُوهَا وَخَلُصَتْ حَبًّا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَى أَهْلِهَا فِيهَا الأَمَانَةُ يُؤَدُّونَ زَكَاتَهَا إِذَا بَلَغَ ذَلِكَ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَهَذَا الأَمْرُ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ النَّخْلَ يُخْرَصُ عَلَى أَهْلِهَا وَثَمَرُهَا فِي رُءُوسِهَا إِذَا طَابَ وَحَلَّ بَيْعُهُ وَيُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ صَدَقَتُهُ تَمْرًا عِنْدَ الْجِدَادِ فَإِنْ أَصَابَتِ الثَّمَرَةَ جَائِحَةٌ بَعْدَ أَنْ تُخْرَصَ عَلَى أَهْلِهَا وَقَبْلَ أَنْ تُجَذَّ فَأَحَاطَتِ الْجَائِحَةُ بِالثَّمَرِ كُلِّهِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَدَقَةٌ فَإِنْ بَقِيَ مِنَ الثَّمَرِ شَىْءٌ يَبْلُغُ خَمْسَةَ أَوْسُقٍ فَصَاعِدًا بِصَاعِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أُخِذَ مِنْهُمْ زَكَاتُهُ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِمْ فِيمَا أَصَابَتِ الْجَائِحَةُ زَكَاةٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الْعَمَلُ فِي الْكَرْمِ أَيْضًا وَإِذَا كَانَ لِرَجُلٍ قِطَعُ أَمْوَالٍ مُتَفَرِّقَةٌ أَوِ اشْتِرَاكٌ فِي أَمْوَالٍ مُتَفَرِّقَةٍ لاَ يَبْلُغُ مَالُ كُلِّ شَرِيكٍ أَوْ قِطَعُهُ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَكَانَتْ إِذَا جُمِعَ بَعْضُ ذَلِكَ إِلَى بَعْضٍ يَبْلُغَ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَإِنَّهُ يَجْمَعُهَا وَيُؤَدِّي زَكَاتَهَا ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ziyad ibn Sad that Ibn Shihabsaid, "Neither jurur, nor musran al-fara, nor adhq ibn hubayq shouldbe taken as zakat from dates. They should be included in theassessment but not taken as zakat. " Malik said, "This is thesame as with sheep and goats, whose young are included in theassessment but are not (actually) taken as zakat. There are alsocertain kinds of fruit which are not taken as zakat, such as burdidates (one of the finest kinds of dates), and similar varieties. Neither the lowest quality (of any property) nor the highestshould be taken. Rather, zakat should be taken from average qualityproperty." Malik said, "The position that we are agreed uponconcerning fruit is that only dates and grapes are estimated while onthe tree. They are estimated when their usability is clear and theyare halal to sell. This is because the fruit of date-palms and vinesis eaten straightaway in the form of fresh dates and grapes, and sothe assessment is done by estimation to make things easier for peopleand to avoid causing them trouble. Their produce is estimated and thenthey are given a free hand in using their produce as they wish, andlater they pay the zakat on it according to the estimation that wasmade." Malik said, "crops which are not eaten fresh, such asgrains and seeds, which are only eaten after they have been harvested,are not estimated. The owner, after he has harvested, threshed andsifted the crop, so that it is then in the form of grain or seed, hasto fulfil his trust himself and deduct the zakat he owes if the amountis large enough for him to have to pay zakat. This is the positionthat we are all agreed upon here (in Madina)." Malik said,"The position that we are all agreed upon here (in Madina) is that theproduce of date palms is estimated while it is still on the tree,after it has ripened and become halal to sell, and the zakat on it isdeducted in the form of dried dates at the time of harvest. If thefruit is damaged after it has been estimated and the damage affectsall the fruit then no zakat has to be paid. If some of the fruitremains unaffected, and this fruit amounts to five awsuq or more usingthe sa of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, thenzakat is deducted from it. Zakat does not have to be paid, however, onthe fruit that was damaged . Grapevines are dealt with in the sameway. If a man owns various pieces of property in variousplaces, or is a co-owner of various pieces of property in variousplaces, none of which individually comes to a zakatable amount, butwhich, when added together, do come to a zakatable amount, then headds them together and pays the zakat that is due on them ." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 612
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 35


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ عَنِ الزَّيْتُونِ، فَقَالَ فِيهِ الْعُشْرُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَإِنَّمَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنَ الزَّيْتُونِ الْعُشْرُ بَعْدَ أَنْ يُعْصَرَ وَيَبْلُغَ زَيْتُونُهُ خَمْسَةَ أَوْسُقٍ فَمَا لَمْ يَبْلُغْ زَيْتُونُهُ خَمْسَةَ أَوْسُقٍ فَلاَ زَكَاةَ فِيهِ وَالزَّيْتُونُ بِمَنْزِلَةِ النَّخِيلِ مَا كَانَ مِنْهُ سَقَتْهُ السَّمَاءُ وَالْعُيُونُ أَوْ كَانَ بَعْلاً فَفِيهِ الْعُشْرُ وَمَا كَانَ يُسْقَى بِالنَّضْحِ فَفِيهِ نِصْفُ الْعُشْرِ وَلاَ يُخْرَصُ شَىْءٌ مِنَ الزَّيْتُونِ فِي شَجَرِهِ ‏.‏ وَالسُّنَّةُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الْحُبُوبِ الَّتِي يَدَّخِرُهَا النَّاسُ وَيَأْكُلُونَهَا أَنَّهُ يُؤْخَذُ مِمَّا سَقَتْهُ السَّمَاءُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَمَا سَقَتْهُ الْعُيُونُ وَمَا كَانَ بَعْلاً الْعُشْرُ وَمَا سُقِيَ بِالنَّضْحِ نِصْفُ الْعُشْرِ إِذَا بَلَغَ ذَلِكَ خَمْسَةَ أَوْسُقٍ بِالصَّاعِ الأَوَّلِ صَاعِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَمَا زَادَ عَلَى خَمْسَةِ أَوْسُقٍ فَفِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ بِحِسَابِ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالْحُبُوبُ الَّتِي فِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ الْحِنْطَةُ وَالشَّعِيرُ وَالسُّلْتُ وَالذُّرَةُ وَالدُّخْنُ وَالأُرْزُ وَالْعَدَسُ وَالْجُلْبَانُ وَاللُّوبِيَا وَالْجُلْجُلاَنُ وَمَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْحُبُوبِ الَّتِي تَصِيرُ طَعَامًا فَالزَّكَاةُ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا بَعْدَ أَنْ تُحْصَدَ وَتَصِيرَ حَبًّا ‏.‏ قَالَ وَالنَّاسُ مُصَدَّقُونَ فِي ذَلِكَ وَيُقْبَلُ مِنْهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ مَا دَفَعُوا ‏.‏ وَسُئِلَ مَالِكٌ مَتَى يُخْرَجُ مِنَ الزَّيْتُونِ الْعُشْرُ أَوْ نِصْفُهُ أَقَبْلَ النَّفَقَةِ أَمْ بَعْدَهَا فَقَالَ لاَ يُنْظَرُ إِلَى النَّفَقَةِ وَلَكِنْ يُسْأَلُ عَنْهُ أَهْلُهُ كَمَا يُسْأَلُ أَهْلُ الطَّعَامِ عَنِ الطَّعَامِ وَيُصَدَّقُونَ بِمَا قَالُوا فَمَنْ رُفِعَ مِنْ زَيْتُونِهِ خَمْسَةُ أَوْسُقٍ فَصَاعِدًا أُخِذَ مِنْ زَيْتِهِ الْعُشْرُ بَعْدَ أَنْ يُعْصَرَ وَمَنْ لَمْ يُرْفَعْ مِنْ زَيْتُونِهِ خَمْسَةُ أَوْسُقٍ لَمْ تَجِبْ عَلَيْهِ فِي زَيْتِهِ الزَّكَاةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ بَاعَ زَرْعَهُ وَقَدْ صَلَحَ وَيَبِسَ فِي أَكْمَامِهِ فَعَلَيْهِ زَكَاتُهُ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهُ زَكَاةٌ وَلاَ يَصْلُحُ بَيْعُ الزَّرْعِ حَتَّى يَيْبَسَ فِي أَكْمَامِهِ وَيَسْتَغْنِيَ عَنِ الْمَاءِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى ‏{‏وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصَادِهِ ‏}‏ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ الزَّكَاةُ وَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ مَنْ يَقُولُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمَنْ بَاعَ أَصْلَ حَائِطِهِ أَوْ أَرْضَهُ وَفِي ذَلِكَ زَرْعٌ أَوْ ثَمَرٌ لَمْ يَبْدُ صَلاَحُهُ فَزَكَاةُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْمُبْتَاعِ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ طَابَ وَحَلَّ بَيْعُهُ فَزَكَاةُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْبَائِعِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشْتَرِطَهَا عَلَى الْمُبْتَاعِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he asked Ibn Shihab aboutolives and he said, "There is a tenth on them." Malik said,"The tenth that is taken from olives is taken after they have beenpressed, and the olives must come to a minimum amount of five awsuqand there must be at least five awsuq of olives. If there are lessthan five awsuq of olives, no zakat has to be paid. Olivetrees are like date palms insofar as there is a tenth on whatever iswatered by rain or springs or any natural means, and a twentieth onwhatever is irrigated. However, olives are not estimated while on thetree. The sunna with us as far as grain and seeds which people storeand eat is concerned is that a tenth is taken from whatever has beenwatered by rain or springs or any natural means, and a twentieth fromwhatever has been irrigated, that is, as long as the amount comes tofive awsuq or more using the aforementioned sa, that is, the sa of theProphet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Zakat must be paidon anything above five awsuq according to the amount involved." Malik said, "The kinds of grain and seeds on which there is zakatare: wheat, barley, sult (a kind of barley), sorghum, pearl millet,rice, lentils, peas, beans, sesame seeds and other such grains andseeds which are used for food. Zakat is taken from them after theyhave been harvested and are in the form of grai n or seed." He said,"People are entrusted with the assessment and whatever they hand overis accepted ." Malik was asked whether the tenth or thetwentieth was taken out of olives before they were sold or after andhe said, "The sale is not taken into consideration. It is the peoplewho produce the olives that are asked about the olives, just as it isthe people who produce foodstuffs that are asked about it, and zakatis taken from them by what they say. Someone who gets five awsuq ormore of olives from his olive trees has a tenth taken from the oilafter pressing. Whereas someone who does not get five awsuq from histrees does not have to pay any zakat on the oil." Malik said,"Someone who sells his crops when they are ripe and are ready in thehusk has to pay zakat on them but the one who buys them does not. Thesale of crops is not valid until they are ready in the husk and nolonger need water." Malik said, concerning the word of Allahthe Exalted, "And give its due on the day of its harvesting," that itreferred to zakat, and that he had heard people saying that. Malik said, "If someone sells his garden or his land, on which arecrops or fruit which have not yet ripened, then it is the buyer whohas to pay the zakat. If, however, they have ripened, it is the sellerwho has to pay the zakat, unless paying the zakat is one of theconditions of the sale." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 613
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 36


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، عَنْ عِرَاكِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ لَيْسَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ فِي عَبْدِهِ وَلاَ فِي فَرَسِهِ صَدَقَةٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Umar fromSulayman ibn Yasar from Irak ibn Malik from Abu Hurayra that theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Amuslim does not have to pay any zakat on his slave or his horse." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 614
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 38


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ يَسَارٍ، أَنَّ أَهْلَ الشَّامِ، قَالُوا لأَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ بْنِ الْجَرَّاحِ خُذْ مِنْ خَيْلِنَا وَرَقِيقِنَا صَدَقَةً ‏.‏ فَأَبَى ثُمَّ كَتَبَ إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَأَبَى عُمَرُ ثُمَّ كَلَّمُوهُ أَيْضًا فَكَتَبَ إِلَى عُمَرَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ عُمَرُ إِنْ أَحَبُّوا فَخُذْهَا مِنْهُمْ وَارْدُدْهَا عَلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْ رَقِيقَهُمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَعْنَى قَوْلِهِ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ وَارْدُدْهَا عَلَيْهِمْ يَقُولُ عَلَى فُقَرَائِهِمْ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Sulayman ibnYasar that the people of Syria said to Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah, "Takezakat from our horses and slaves," and he refused. Then he wrote toUmar ibn al-Khattab and he (also) refused. Again they talked to himand again he wrote to Umar, and Umar wrote back to him saying, "Ifthey want, take it from them and (then) give it back to them and givetheir slaves provision." Malik said, "What he means, mayAllah have mercy upon him, by the words 'and give it back to them' is,'to their poor.' " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 615
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 39


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ حَزْمٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ جَاءَ كِتَابٌ مِنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ إِلَى أَبِي وَهُوَ بِمِنًى أَنْ لاَ يَأْخُذَ مِنَ الْعَسَلِ وَلاَ مِنَ الْخَيْلِ صَدَقَةً ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that Abdullah ibn Abi Bakr ibn Amribn Hazim said, "A message came from Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz to my fatherwhen he was in Mina telling him not to take zakat from either honey orhorses." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 616
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 40



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