وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ خُصَيْفَةَ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ عَنْ رَجُلٍ، لَهُ مَالٌ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ مِثْلُهُ أَعَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ فَقَالَ لاَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ عِنْدَنَا فِي الدَّيْنِ أَنَّ صَاحِبَهُ لاَ يُزَكِّيهِ حَتَّى يَقْبِضَهُ وَإِنْ أَقَامَ عِنْدَ الَّذِي هُوَ عَلَيْهِ سِنِينَ ذَوَاتِ عَدَدٍ ثُمَّ قَبَضَهُ صَاحِبُهُ لَمْ تَجِبْ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ زَكَاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَإِنْ قَبَضَ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا لاَ تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَإِنَّهُ إِنْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ سِوَى الَّذِي قُبِضَ تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَإِنَّهُ يُزَكَّى مَعَ مَا قَبَضَ مِنْ دَيْنِهِ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ نَاضٌّ غَيْرُ الَّذِي اقْتَضَى مِنْ دَيْنِهِ وَكَانَ الَّذِي اقْتَضَى مِنْ دَيْنِهِ لاَ تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَلاَ زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ وَلَكِنْ لِيَحْفَظْ عَدَدَ مَا اقْتَضَى فَإِنِ اقْتَضَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ عَدَدَ مَا تَتِمُّ بِهِ الزَّكَاةُ مَعَ مَا قَبَضَ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ فَعَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَإِنْ كَانَ قَدِ اسْتَهْلَكَ مَا اقْتَضَى أَوَّلاً أَوْ لَمْ يَسْتَهْلِكْهُ فَالزَّكَاةُ وَاجِبَةٌ عَلَيْهِ مَعَ مَا اقْتَضَى مِنْ دَيْنِهِ فَإِذَا بَلَغَ مَا اقْتَضَى عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا عَيْنًا أَوْ مِائَتَىْ دِرْهَمٍ فَعَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ ثُمَّ مَا اقْتَضَى بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ قَلِيلٍ أَوْ كَثِيرٍ فَعَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ بِحَسَبِ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى الدَّيْنِ يَغِيبُ أَعْوَامًا ثُمَّ يُقْتَضَى فَلاَ يَكُونُ فِيهِ إِلاَّ زَكَاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ أَنَّ الْعُرُوضَ تَكُونُ عِنْدَ الرَّجُلِ لِلتِّجَارَةِ أَعْوَامًا ثُمَّ يَبِيعُهَا فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ فِي أَثْمَانِهَا إِلاَّ زَكَاةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ عَلَى صَاحِبِ الدَّيْنِ أَوِ الْعُرُوضِ أَنْ يُخْرِجَ زَكَاةَ ذَلِكَ الدَّيْنِ أَوِ الْعُرُوضِ مِنْ مَالٍ سِوَاهُ وَإِنَّمَا يُخْرِجُ زَكَاةَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ مِنْهُ وَلاَ يُخْرِجُ الزَّكَاةَ مِنْ شَىْءٍ عَنْ شَىْءٍ غَيْرِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا فِي الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ وَعِنْدَهُ مِنَ الْعُرُوضِ مَا فِيهِ وَفَاءٌ لِمَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الدَّيْنِ وَيَكُونُ عِنْدَهُ مِنَ النَّاضِّ سِوَى ذَلِكَ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَإِنَّهُ يُزَكِّي مَا بِيَدِهِ مِنْ نَاضٍّ تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ عِنْدَهُ مِنَ الْعُرُوضِ وَالنَّقْدِ إِلاَّ وَفَاءُ دَيْنِهِ فَلاَ زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَكُونَ عِنْدَهُ مِنَ النَّاضِّ فَضْلٌ عَنْ دَيْنِهِ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَعَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُزَكِّيَهُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Khusayfa that hehad asked Sulayman ibn Yasar whether zakat was due from a man who hadwealth in hand but also owed a debt for the same amount, and hereplied, "No." Malik said, "The position that we are agreedupon concerning a debt is that the lender of it does not pay zakat onit until he gets it back. Even if it stays with the borrower for anumber of years before the lender collects it, the lender only has topay zakat on it once. If he collects an amount of the debt which isnot zakatable, and has other wealth which is zakatable, then what hehas collected of the debt is added to the rest of his wealth and hepays zakat on the total sum." Malik continued, "If he has noready money other than that which he has collected from his debt, andthat does not reach a zakatable amount, then he does not have to payany zakat. He must, however, keep a record of the amount that he hascollected and if, later, he collects another amount which, when addedto what he has already collected, brings zakat into effect, then hehas to pay zakat on it." Malik continued, "Zakat is due onthis first amount, together with what he has further collected of thedebt owed to him, regardless of whether or not he has used up what hefirst collected. If what he takes back reaches twenty dinars of gold,or two hundred dirhams of silver he pays zakat on it. He pays zakat onanything else he takes back afte rthat, whether it be a large or smallamount, according to the amount." Malik said, "What showsthat zakat is only taken once from a debt which is out of hand forsome years before it is recovered is that if goods remain with a manfor trading purposes for some years before he sells them, he only hasto pay zakat on their prices once. This is because the one who is owedthe debt, or owns the goods, should not have to take the zakat on thedebt, or the goods, from anything else, since the zakat on anything isonly taken from the thing itself, and not from anything else." Malik said, "Our position regarding some onewho owes a debt, andhas goods which are worth enough to pay off the debt, and also has anamount of ready money which is zakatable, is that he pays the zakat onthe ready money which he has to hand. If, however, he only has enoughgoods and ready money to pay off the debt, then he does not have topay any zakat. But if the ready money that he has reaches a zakatableamount over and above the amount of the debt that he owes, then hemust pay zakat on it." Translation Not Available

Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith 598
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith 19