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Muwatta Imam Malik

I'tikaf in Ramadan

كتاب الاعتكاف

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ بْنِ الزُّبَيْرِ، عَنْ عَمْرَةَ بِنْتِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهَا قَالَتْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا اعْتَكَفَ يُدْنِي إِلَىَّ رَأْسَهُ فَأُرَجِّلُهُ وَكَانَ لاَ يَدْخُلُ الْبَيْتَ إِلاَّ لِحَاجَةِ الإِنْسَانِ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Urwa ibn az-Zubayr from Amra bint Abd ar-Rahman that A'isha, the wife of theProphet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,"When theMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, diditikaf he would bring his head near to me and I would comb it. Hewould only go into the house to relieve himself." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 693
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 1


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عَمْرَةَ بِنْتِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، كَانَتْ إِذَا اعْتَكَفَتْ لاَ تَسْأَلُ عَنِ الْمَرِيضِ إِلاَّ وَهِيَ تَمْشِي لاَ تَقِفُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Amra bint Abdar-Rahman that when A'isha was doing itikaf she would only ask aftersick people if she was walking and not if she was standing still. Malik said, "A person doing itikaf should not carry outobligations of his, nor leave the mosque for them, nor should he helpanyone. He should only leave the mosque to relieve himself. If he wereable to go out to do things for people, visiting the sick, prayingover the dead and following funeral processions would be the thingswith the most claim on his coming out." Malik said, "A persondoing itikaf is not doing itikaf until he avoids what some one doingitikaf should avoid, namely, visiting the sick, praying over the dead,and entering houses, except to relieve himself." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 694
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 2


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ سَأَلَ ابْنَ شِهَابٍ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ، يَعْتَكِفُ هَلْ يَدْخُلُ لِحَاجَتِهِ تَحْتَ سَقْفٍ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ لاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا الَّذِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهِ أَنَّهُ لاَ يُكْرَهُ الاِعْتِكَافُ فِي كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ يُجَمَّعُ فِيهِ وَلاَ أُرَاهُ كُرِهَ الاِعْتِكَافُ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ الَّتِي لاَ يُجَمَّعُ فِيهَا إِلاَّ كَرَاهِيَةَ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ الْمُعْتَكِفُ مِنْ مَسْجِدِهِ الَّذِي اعْتَكَفَ فِيهِ إِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ أَوْ يَدَعَهَا فَإِنْ كَانَ مَسْجِدًا لاَ يُجَمَّعُ فِيهِ الْجُمُعَةُ وَلاَ يَجِبُ عَلَى صَاحِبِهِ إِتْيَانُ الْجُمُعَةِ فِي مَسْجِدٍ سِوَاهُ فَإِنِّي لاَ أَرَى بَأْسًا بِالاِعْتِكَافِ فِيهِ لأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ ‏{‏وَأَنْتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ‏}‏ فَعَمَّ اللَّهُ الْمَسَاجِدَ كُلَّهَا وَلَمْ يَخُصَّ شَيْئًا مِنْهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فَمِنْ هُنَالِكَ جَازَ لَهُ أَنْ يَعْتَكِفَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ الَّتِي لاَ يُجَمَّعُ فِيهَا الْجُمُعَةُ إِذَا كَانَ لاَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ مِنْهُ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الَّذِي تُجَمَّعُ فِيهِ الْجُمُعَةُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَلاَ يَبِيتُ الْمُعْتَكِفُ إِلاَّ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الَّذِي اعْتَكَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ خِبَاؤُهُ فِي رَحَبَةٍ مِنْ رِحَابِ الْمَسْجِدِ وَلَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَنَّ الْمُعْتَكِفَ يَضْرِبُ بِنَاءً يَبِيتُ فِيهِ إِلاَّ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ أَوْ فِي رَحَبَةٍ مِنْ رِحَابِ الْمَسْجِدِ وَمِمَّا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لاَ يَبِيتُ إِلاَّ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ قَوْلُ عَائِشَةَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا اعْتَكَفَ لاَ يَدْخُلُ الْبَيْتَ إِلاَّ لِحَاجَةِ الإِنْسَانِ ‏.‏ وَلاَ يَعْتَكِفُ فَوْقَ ظَهْرِ الْمَسْجِدِ وَلاَ فِي الْمَنَارِ يَعْنِي الصَّوْمَعَةَ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ يَدْخُلُ الْمُعْتَكِفُ الْمَكَانَ الَّذِي يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَعْتَكِفَ فِيهِ قَبْلَ غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ مِنَ اللَّيْلَةِ الَّتِي يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَعْتَكِفَ فِيهَا حَتَّى يَسْتَقْبِلَ بِاعْتِكَافِهِ أَوَّلَ اللَّيْلَةِ الَّتِي يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَعْتَكِفَ فِيهَا وَالْمُعْتَكِفُ مُشْتَغِلٌ بِاعْتِكَافِهِ لاَ يَعْرِضُ لِغَيْرِهِ مِمَّا يَشْتَغِلُ بِهِ مِنَ التِّجَارَاتِ أَوْ غَيْرِهَا وَلاَ بَأْسَ بِأَنْ يَأْمُرَ الْمُعْتَكِفُ بِبَعْضِ حَاجَتِهِ بِضَيْعَتِهِ وَمَصْلَحَةِ أَهْلِهِ وَأَنْ يَأْمُرَ بِبَيْعِ مَالِهِ أَوْ بِشَىْءٍ لاَ يَشْغَلُهُ فِي نَفْسِهِ فَلاَ بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ خَفِيفًا أَنْ يَأْمُرَ بِذَلِكَ مَنْ يَكْفِيهِ إِيَّاهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لَمْ أَسْمَعْ أَحَدًا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ يَذْكُرُ فِي الاِعْتِكَافِ شَرْطًا وَإِنَّمَا الاِعْتِكَافُ عَمَلٌ مِنَ الأَعْمَالِ مِثْلُ الصَّلاَةِ وَالصِّيَامِ وَالْحَجِّ وَمَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الأَعْمَالِ مَا كَانَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَرِيضَةً أَوْ نَافِلَةً فَمَنْ دَخَلَ فِي شَىْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَإِنَّمَا يَعْمَلُ بِمَا مَضَى مِنَ السُّنَّةِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يُحْدِثَ فِي ذَلِكَ غَيْرَ مَا مَضَى عَلَيْهِ الْمُسْلِمُونَ لاَ مِنْ شَرْطٍ يَشْتَرِطُهُ وَلاَ يَبْتَدِعُهُ وَقَدِ اعْتَكَفَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَعَرَفَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ سُنَّةَ الاِعْتِكَافِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَالاِعْتِكَافَ وَالْجِوَارُ سَوَاءٌ وَالاِعْتِكَافُ لِلْقَرَوِيِّ وَالْبَدَوِيِّ سَوَاءٌ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had asked Ibn Shihabwhether someone doing itikaf could go into a house to relieve himself,and he said, "Yes, there is no harm in that." Malik said,"The situation that we are all agreed upon here is that there is nodisapproval of anyone doing itikaf in a mosque where jumua is held.The only reason I see for disapproving of doing itikaf in a mosquewhere jumua is not held is that the man doing itikaf would have toleave the mosque where he was doing itikaf in order to go to jumua, orelse not go there at all. If, however, he is doing itikaf in a mosquewhere jumua is not held, and he does not have to go to jumua in anyother mosque, then I see no harm in him doing itikaf there, becauseAllah, the Blessed and Exalted, says, 'While you are doing itikaf inmosques,' and refers to all mosques in general, without specifying anyparticular kind." Malik continued, "Accordingly, it ispermissiblefor a man to do itikaf in a mosque where jumua is not heldif he does not have to leave it to go to a mosque where jumua isheld." Malik said, "A person doing itikaf should spend thenight only in the mosque where he is doing itikaf, except if his tentis in one of the courtyards of the mosque. I have never heard thatsomeone doing itikaf can put up a shelter anywhere except in themosque itself or in one of the courtyards of the mosque. Partof what shows that he must spend the night in the mosque is the sayingof A'isha, 'When the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and granthim peace, was doing itikaf, he would only go into the house torelieve himself.' Nor should he do itikaf on the roof of the mosque orin the minaret." Malik said, "The person who is going to doitikaf should enter the place where he wishes to do itikaf before thesun sets on the night when he wishes to begin his itikaf, so that heis ready to begin the itikaf at the beginning of the night when he isgoing to start his itikaf. A person doing itikaf should be occupiedwith his itikaf, and not turn his attention to other things whichmight occupy him, such as trading or whatever. There is no harm,however, if some one doing itikaf tells some one to do something forhim regarding his estate, or the affairs of his family, or tellssomeone to sell some property of his, or something else that does notoccupy him directly. There is no harm in him arranging for someoneelse to do that for him if it is a simple matter." Maliksaid, "I have never heard any of the people of knowledge mentioningany modification as far as how to do itikaf is concerned. Itikaf is anact of ibada like the prayer, fasting, the hajj, and such like acts,whether they are obligatory or voluntary. Anyone who begins doing anyof these acts should do them according to what has come down in thesunna. He should not start doing anything in them that the muslimshave not done, whether it is a modification that he imposes on others,or one that he begins doing himself. The Messenger of Allah, may Allahbless him and grant him peace, practised itikaf, and the muslims knowwhat the sunna of itikaf is." Malik said, "Itikaf and jiwarare the same, and Itikaf is the same for a village-dweller as it isfor a nomad." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 695
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 3


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَنَافِعًا، مَوْلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ قَالاَ لاَ اعْتِكَافَ إِلاَّ بِصِيَامٍ بِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فِي كِتَابِهِ ‏{‏وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ وَلاَ تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنْتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ‏}‏ فَإِنَّمَا ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ الاِعْتِكَافَ مَعَ الصِّيَامِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ لاَ اعْتِكَافَ إِلاَّ بِصِيَامٍ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that al-Qasimibn Muhammad and Nafi, the mawla of Abdullah ibn Umar said, "Youcannot do itikaf unless you are fasting, because of what Allah, theBlessed and Exalted, says in His Book, 'And eat and drink until thewhite thread becomes clear to you from the black thread of dawn, thencomplete the fast until night-time, and do not have intercourse withthem while you are doing itikaf in mosques,' (Sura 2 ayat 187). Allahonly mentions itikaf together with fasting." Malik said,"That is what we go by here." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 696
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 4


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ زِيَادِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ سُمَىٍّ، مَوْلَى أَبِي بَكْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ أَنَّ أَبَا بَكْرِ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، اعْتَكَفَ فَكَانَ يَذْهَبُ لِحَاجَتِهِ تَحْتَ سَقِيفَةٍ فِي حُجْرَةٍ مُغْلَقَةٍ فِي دَارِ خَالِدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ ثُمَّ لاَ يَرْجِعُ حَتَّى يَشْهَدَ الْعِيدَ مَعَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ‏.

Yahya related to me that Ziyad ibn Abd ar-Rahman said, "Malikrelated to us from Sumayy, the mawla of Abu Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman,that Abu Bakr ibn Abd ar-Rahman was once doing itikaf and he would goout to relieve himself in a closed room under a roofed passage inKhalid ibn Walid's house. Otherwise he did not leave his place ofitikaf until he went to pray at the Id with the muslims." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 697
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 5


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى عَنْ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مَالِكٍ أَنَّهُ رَأَى بَعْضَ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ إِذَا اعْتَكَفُوا الْعَشْرَ الأَوَاخِرَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ لاَ يَرْجِعُونَ إِلَى أَهَالِيهِمْ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا الْفِطْرَ مَعَ النَّاسِ ‏.‏ قَالَ زِيَادٌ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَبَلَغَنِي ذَلِكَ عَنْ أَهْلِ الْفَضْلِ الَّذِينَ مَضَوْا وَهَذَا أَحَبُّ مَا سَمِعْتُ إِلَىَّ فِي ذَلِكَ ‏.

Yahya related to me from Ziyad from Malik that he saw some of thepeople of knowledge who, when they did itikaf in the last ten days ofRamadan, would not go back to their families until they had attendedthe Id al-Fitr with everybody. Ziyad said that Malik said, "Iheard this from the people of excellence who have passed away, and itis what I like most out of what I have heard about the matter." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 697
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 19 Hadith no 6



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