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Muwatta Imam Malik

Wills and Testaments

كتاب الوصية

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا الدَّرْدَاءِ، كَتَبَ إِلَى سَلْمَانَ الْفَارِسِيِّ أَنْ هَلُمَّ إِلَى الأَرْضِ الْمُقَدَّسَةِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِ سَلْمَانُ إِنَّ الأَرْضَ لاَ تُقَدِّسُ أَحَدًا وَإِنَّمَا يُقَدِّسُ الإِنْسَانَ عَمَلُهُ وَقَدْ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّكَ جُعِلْتَ طَبِيبًا تُدَاوِي فَإِنْ كُنْتَ تُبْرِئُ فَنِعِمَّا لَكَ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ مُتَطَبِّبًا فَاحْذَرْ أَنْ تَقْتُلَ إِنْسَانًا فَتَدْخُلَ النَّارَ ‏.‏ فَكَانَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ إِذَا قَضَى بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَا عَنْهُ نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِمَا وَقَالَ ارْجِعَا إِلَىَّ أَعِيدَا عَلَىَّ قِصَّتَكُمَا مُتَطَبِّبٌ وَاللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ مَنِ اسْتَعَانَ عَبْدًا بِغَيْرِ إِذْنِ سَيِّدِهِ فِي شَىْءٍ لَهُ بَالٌ وَلِمِثْلِهِ إِجَارَةٌ فَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ لِمَا أَصَابَ الْعَبْدَ إِنْ أُصِيبَ الْعَبْدُ بِشَىْءٍ وَإِنْ سَلِمَ الْعَبْدُ فَطَلَبَ سَيِّدُهُ إِجَارَتَهُ لِمَا عَمِلَ فَذَلِكَ لِسَيِّدِهِ وَهُوَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا ‏.‏ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ فِي الْعَبْدِ يَكُونُ بَعْضُهُ حُرًّا وَبَعْضُهُ مُسْتَرَقًّا إِنَّهُ يُوقَفُ مَالُهُ بِيَدِهِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يُحْدِثَ فِيهِ شَيْئًا وَلَكِنَّهُ يَأْكُلُ فِيهِ وَيَكْتَسِي بِالْمَعْرُوفِ فَإِذَا هَلَكَ فَمَالُهُ لِلَّذِي بَقِيَ لَهُ فِيهِ الرِّقُّ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُ مَالِكًا يَقُولُ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الْوَالِدَ يُحَاسِبُ وَلَدَهُ بِمَا أَنْفَقَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ يَوْمِ يَكُونُ لِلْوَلَدِ مَالٌ - نَاضًّا كَانَ أَوْ عَرْضًا - إِنْ أَرَادَ الْوَالِدُ ذَلِكَ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said that Abu'd-Darda wrote toSalman al-Farsi, "Come immediately to the holy land." Salman wroteback to him, "Land does not make anyone holy. Man's deeds make himholy. I have heard that you were put up as a doctor to treat and curepeople. If you are innocent, then may you have delight! If you are aquack, then beware lest you kill a man and enter the Fire!" WhenAbu'd-Darda judged between two men, and they turned from him to go, hewould look at them and say, "Come back to me, and tell me your storyagain. A quack! By Allah!" Yahya said that he heard Maliksay, "If someone makes use of a slave, without permission of itsmaster, in anything important to him, whose like has a fee, he isliable for what befalls the slave if anything befalls him. If theslave is safe and his master asks for his wage for what he has done,that is the master's right. This is what is done in our community." Yahya said that he heard Malik say about a slave who is partfree and part enslaved, "His property is suspended in his hand and hecannot begin anything with it. He eats from it and clothes himself inan approved fashion. If he dies, his property belongs to the one towhom he is in slavery." Yahya said that he heard Malik say,"The way of doing things in our community is that a parent can takehis child to account for what he spends on him from the day the childhas property, cash or goods, if the parent wants that." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1464
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 7


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ دَلاَفٍ الْمُزَنِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، مِنْ جُهَيْنَةَ كَانَ يَسْبِقُ الْحَاجَّ فَيَشْتَرِي الرَّوَاحِلَ فَيُغْلِي بِهَا ثُمَّ يُسْرِعُ السَّيْرَ فَيَسْبِقُ الْحَاجَّ فَأَفْلَسَ فَرُفِعَ أَمْرُهُ إِلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فَقَالَ أَمَّا بَعْدُ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَإِنَّ الأُسَيْفِعَ أُسَيْفِعَ جُهَيْنَةَ رَضِيَ مِنْ دِينِهِ وَأَمَانَتِهِ بِأَنْ يُقَالَ سَبَقَ الْحَاجَّ أَلاَ وَإِنَّهُ قَدْ دَانَ مُعْرِضًا فَأَصْبَحَ قَدْ رِينَ بِهِ فَمَنْ كَانَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ فَلْيَأْتِنَا بِالْغَدَاةِ نَقْسِمُ مَالَهُ بَيْنَهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالدَّيْنَ فَإِنَّ أَوَّلَهُ هَمٌّ وَآخِرَهُ حَرْبٌ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Umar ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Dalaf al-Muzani from his father that a man from the Juhayna tribe used to buycamels before people set out for hajj and sell them at a higher price.Then he travelled quickly and used to arrive in Makka before theothers who set out for hajj. He went bankrupt and his situation wasput before Umar ibn al-Khattab, who said, "O People! al-Usayfi, al-Usayfi of the Juhayna, was satisfied with his deen and his trustbecause it was said of him that he arrived before the others on hajj.He used to incur debts which he was not careful to repay, so all ofhis property has been eaten up by it. Whoever has a debt against him,let him come to us tomorrow and we will divide his property betweenhis creditors. Beware of debts! Their beginning is a worry and theirend is destitution. " Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1465
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 8


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ عُثْمَانَ بْنَ عَفَّانَ، قَالَ مَنْ نَحَلَ وَلَدًا لَهُ صَغِيرًا لَمْ يَبْلُغْ أَنْ يَحُوزَ نُحْلَهُ فَأَعْلَنَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدَ عَلَيْهَا فَهِيَ جَائِزَةٌ وَإِنْ وَلِيَهَا أَبُوهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ مَنْ نَحَلَ ابْنًا لَهُ صَغِيرًا ذَهَبًا أَوْ وَرِقًا ثُمَّ هَلَكَ وَهُوَ يَلِيهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ شَىْءَ لِلاِبْنِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ الأَبُ عَزَلَهَا بِعَيْنِهَا أَوْ دَفَعَهَا إِلَى رَجُلٍ وَضَعَهَا لاِبْنِهِ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ الرَّجُلِ فَإِنْ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ فَهُوَ جَائِزٌ لِلاِبْنِ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al-Musayyabthat Uthman ibn Affan said, "If someone gives something to his smallchild who is not old enough to look after it himself, and in orderthat his gift might be permitted he makes the gift public and has itwitnessed, the gift is permitted, even if the father keeps charge ofit." Malik said, "What is done in our community is that if aman gives his small child some gold or silver and then dies and he hasit in his own keeping, the child has none of it unless the father setit aside in coin or placed it with a man to keep for the son. If hedoes that, it is permitted for the son." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 1466
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 37 Hadith no 9



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