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Muwatta Imam Malik

Zakat

كتاب الزكاة

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏:‏ أَوَّلُ مَنْ أَخَذَ مِنَ الأَعْطِيَةِ الزَّكَاةَ مُعَاوِيَةُ بْنُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ ‏:‏ السُّنَّةُ الَّتِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهَا عِنْدَنَا أَنَّ الزَّكَاةَ تَجِبُ فِي عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا عَيْنًا كَمَا تَجِبُ فِي مِائَتَىْ دِرْهَمٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ ‏:‏ لَيْسَ فِي عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا نَاقِصَةً بَيِّنَةَ النُّقْصَانِ زَكَاةٌ، فَإِنْ زَادَتْ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ بِزِيَادَتِهَا عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا وَازِنَةً فَفِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ، وَلَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا عَيْنًا الزَّكَاةُ، وَلَيْسَ فِي مِائَتَىْ دِرْهَمٍ نَاقِصَةً بَيِّنَةَ النُّقْصَانِ زَكَاةٌ، فَإِنْ زَادَتْ حَتَّى تَبْلُغَ بِزِيَادَتِهَا مِائَتَىْ دِرْهَمٍ وَافِيةً فَفِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ، فَإِنْ كَانَتْ تَجُوزُ بِجَوَازِ الْوَازِنَةِ رَأَيْتُ فِيهَا الزَّكَاةَ دَنَانِيرَ كَانَتْ أَوْ دَرَاهِمَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ كَانَتْ عِنْدَهُ سِتُّونَ وَمِائَةُ دِرْهَمٍ وَازِنَةً وَصَرْفُ الدَّرَاهِمِ بِبَلَدِهِ ثَمَانِيَةُ دَرَاهِمَ بِدِينَارٍ ‏:‏ أَنَّهَا لاَ تَجِبُ فِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ، وَإِنَّمَا تَجِبُ الزَّكَاةُ فِي عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا عَيْنًا أَوْ مِائَتَىْ دِرْهَمٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ كَانَتْ لَهُ خَمْسَةُ دَنَانِيرَ مِنْ فَائِدَةٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهَا، فَتَجَرَ فِيهَا فَلَمْ يَأْتِ الْحَوْلُ حَتَّى بَلَغَتْ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ ‏:‏ أَنَّهُ يُزَكِّيهَا وَإِنْ لَمْ تَتِمَّ إِلاَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ بِيَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ، أَوْ بَعْدَ مَا يَحُولُ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ بِيَوْمٍ وَاحِدٍ، ثُمَّ لاَ زَكَاةَ فِيهَا حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ زُكِّيَتْ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ مَالِكٌ فِي رَجُلٍ كَانَتْ لَهُ عَشَرَةُ دَنَانِيرَ فَتَجَرَ فِيهَا فَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ وَقَدْ بَلَغَتْ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا ‏:‏ أَنَّهُ يُزَكِّيهَا مَكَانَهَا وَلاَ يَنْتَظِرُ بِهَا أَنْ يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ بَلَغَتْ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ لِأَنَّ الْحَوْلَ قَدْ حَالَ عَلَيْهَا وَهِيَ عِنْدَهُ عِشْرُونَ ثُمَّ لَا زَكَاةَ فِيهَا حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ زُكِّيَتْ قَالَ مَالِك الْأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا فِي إِجَارَةِ الْعَبِيدِ وَخَرَاجِهِمْ وَكِرَاءِ الْمَسَاكِينِ وَكِتَابَةِ الْمُكَاتَبِ أَنَّهُ لَا تَجِبُ فِي شَيْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الزَّكَاةُ قَلَّ ذَلِكَ أَوْ كَثُرَ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمِ يَقْبِضُهُ صَاحِبُهُ. وَقَالَ مَالِك فِي الذَّهَبِ وَالْوَرِقِ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ الشُّرَكَاءِ إِنَّ مَنْ بَلَغَتْ حِصَّتُهُ مِنْهُمْ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا عَيْنًا أَوْ مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ فَعَلَيْهِ فِيهَا الزَّكَاةُ وَمَنْ نَقَصَتْ حِصَّتُهُ عَمَّا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ فَلَا زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ بَلَغَتْ حِصَصُهُمْ جَمِيعًا مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَكَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ فِي ذَلِكَ أَفْضَلَ نَصِيبًا مِنْ بَعْضٍ أُخِذَ مِنْ كُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ بِقَدْرِ حِصَّتِهِ إِذَا كَانَ فِي حِصَّةِ كُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ مَا تَجِبُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لَيْسَ فِيمَا دُونَ خَمْسِ أَوَاقٍ مِنْ الْوَرِقِ صَدَقَةٌ قَالَ مَالِك وَهَذَا أَحَبُّ مَا سَمِعْتُ إِلَيَّ فِي ذَلِكَ قَالَ مَالِك وَإِذَا كَانَتْ لِرَجُلٍ ذَهَبٌ أَوْ وَرِقٌ مُتَفَرِّقَةٌ بِأَيْدِي أُنَاسٍ شَتَّى فَإِنَّهُ يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يُحْصِيَهَا جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ يُخْرِجَ مَا وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ زَكَاتِهَا كُلِّهَا قَالَ مَالِك وَمَنْ أَفَادَ ذَهَبًا أَوْ وَرِقًا إِنَّهُ لَا زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ مِنْ يَوْمَ أَفَادَهَا

Yahya related to me from Malik that Ibn Shihab said, "The firstperson to deduct zakat from allowances was Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan."(i.e. the deduction being made automatically) . Malik said,"The agreed sunna with us is that zakat has to be paid on twentydinars (of gold coin), in the same way as it has to be paid on twohundred dirhams (of silver)." Malik said, "There is no zakatto pay on (gold) that is clearly less than twenty dinars (in weight)but if it increases so that by the increase the amount reaches a fulltwenty dinars in weight then zakat has to be paid. Similarly, there isno zakat to pay on (silver) that is clearly less than two hundreddirhams (in weight), but if it increases so that by the increase theamount reaches a full two hundred dirhams in weight then zakat has tobe paid. If it passes the full weight then I think there is zakat topay, whether it be dinars or dirhams." (i.e. the zakat is assessed bythe weight and not the number of the coins.) Malik said,about a man who had one hundred and sixty dirhams by weight, and theexchange rate in his town was eight dirhams to a dinar, that he didnot have to pay any zakat. Zakat had only to be paid on twenty dinarsof gold or two hundred dirhams. Malik said, in the case of aman who acquired five dinars from a transaction or in some other waywhich he then invested in trade, that, as soon as it increased to azakatable amount and then a year elapsed, he had to pay zakat on it,even if the zakatable amount was reached one day before or one dayafter the passing of a year. There was then no zakat to pay on it fromthe day the zakat was taken until a year had elapsed over it. Malik said, in the similar case of a man who had in his possession tendinars which he invested in trade and which reached twenty dinars bythe time one year had elapsed over them, that he paid zakat on themright then and did not wait until a year had elapsed over them,(counting) from the day when they actually reached the zakatableamount. This was because a year had elapsed over the original dinarsand there were now twenty of them in his possession. After that therewas no zakat to pay on them from the day the zakat was paid untilanother year had elapsed over them. Malik said, "What we areagreed upon (here in Madina) regarding income from hiring out slaves,rent from property, and the sums received when a slave buys hisfreedom, is that no zakat is due on any of it, whether great or small,from the day the owner takes possession of it until a year has elapsedover it from the day when the owner takes possession of it." Malik said, in the case of gold and silver which was shared betweentwo co-owners, that zakat was due from any one whose share reachedtwenty dinars of gold, or two hundred dirhams of silver, and that nozakat was due from anyone whose share fell short of this zakatableamount. If all the shares reached the zakatable amount and the shareswere not equally divided, zakat was taken from each man according tothe measure of his share. This applied only when the share of each manamong them reached the zakatable amount, because the Messenger ofAllah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had said, "There is nozakat to pay on less than five awaq of silver." Malikcommented, "This is what I prefer most out of what I have heard aboutthe matter." Malik said, "When a man has gold and silverdispersed among various people he must add it all up together and thentake out the zakat due on the total sum ." Malik said, "Nozakat is due from some one who acquires gold or silver until a yearhas elapsed over his acquisition from the day it became his." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 587
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 7


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ غَيْرِ، وَاحِدٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَطَعَ لِبِلاَلِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ الْمُزَنِيِّ مَعَادِنَ الْقَبَلِيَّةِ - وَهِيَ مِنْ نَاحِيَةِ الْفُرْعِ - فَتِلْكَ الْمَعَادِنُ لاَ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا إِلَى الْيَوْمِ إِلاَّ الزَّكَاةُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman from more than one source that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, assigned the mines of al Qabaliyya, which is in the direction of al-Fur, to Bilal ibn Harith al-Mazini, and nothing has been taken from them up to this day except zakat. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 588
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 8


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، وَعَنْ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ فِي الرِّكَازِ الْخُمُسُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Said ibn al- Musayyab and from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace ,said, "There is a tax of a fifth on buried treasure." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 589
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 9


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عَائِشَةَ، زَوْجَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَتْ تَلِي بَنَاتِ أَخِيهَا يَتَامَى فِي حَجْرِهَا لَهُنَّ الْحَلْىُ فَلاَ تُخْرِجُ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِنَّ الزَّكَاةَ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Qasimfrom his father that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah blesshim and grant him peace, used to look after the orphaned daughters ofher brother in her house. They had jewellery (which they wore) and shedid not take zakat from this jewellery of theirs. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 590
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 10


وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ، كَانَ يُحَلِّي بَنَاتِهُ وَجَوَارِيَهُ الذَّهَبَ ثُمَّ لاَ يُخْرِجُ مِنْ حُلِيِّهِنَّ الزَّكَاةَ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ مَنْ كَانَ عِنْدَهُ تِبْرٌ أَوْ حَلْىٌ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ أَوْ فِضَّةٍ لاَ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ لِلُبْسٍ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةَ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ يُوزَنُ فَيُؤْخَذُ رُبُعُ عُشْرِهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَنْقُصَ مِنْ وَزْنِ عِشْرِينَ دِينَارًا عَيْنًا أَوْ مِائَتَىْ دِرْهَمٍ فَإِنْ نَقَصَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ فِيهِ زَكَاةٌ وَإِنَّمَا تَكُونُ فِيهِ الزَّكَاةُ إِذَا كَانَ إِنَّمَا يُمْسِكُهُ لِغَيْرِ اللُّبْسِ فَأَمَّا التِّبْرُ وَالْحُلِيُّ الْمَكْسُورُ الَّذِي يُرِيدُ أَهْلُهُ إِصْلاَحَهُ وَلُبْسَهُ فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْمَتَاعِ الَّذِي يَكُونُ عِنْدَ أَهْلِهِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ فِيهِ زَكَاةٌ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ لَيْسَ فِي اللُّؤْلُؤِ وَلاَ فِي الْمِسْكِ وَلاَ الْعَنْبَرِ زَكَاةٌ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umarused to adorn his daughters and slave-girls with gold jewellery and hedid not take any zakat from their jewellery. Malik said,"Anyone who has unminted gold or silver, or gold and silver jewellerywhich is not used for wearing, must pay zakat on it every year. It isweighed and one-fortieth is taken, unless it falls short of twentydinars of gold or two hundred dirhams of silver, in which case thereis no zakat to pay. Zakat is paid only when jewellery is kept forpurposes other than wearing. Bits of gold and silver or brokenjewellery which the owner intends to mend to wear are in the sameposition as goods which are worn by their owner - no zakat has to bepaid on them by the owner." Malik said, "There is no zakat(to pay) on pearls, musk or amber." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 591
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 11


حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، قَالَ اتَّجِرُوا فِي أَمْوَالِ الْيَتَامَى لاَ تَأْكُلُهَا الزَّكَاةُ ‏.‏

Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Umar ibnal-Khattab said, "Trade with the property of orphans and then it willnot be eaten away by zakat." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 592
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 17 Hadith no 12



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