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Muwatta Imam Malik

Setting Free and Wala'

كتاب العتق والولاء

حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏"‏ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ شِرْكًا لَهُ فِي عَبْدٍ فَكَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ يَبْلُغُ ثَمَنَ الْعَبْدِ قُوِّمَ عَلَيْهِ قِيمَةَ الْعَدْلِ فَأَعْطَى شُرَكَاءَهُ حِصَصَهُمْ وَعَتَقَ عَلَيْهِ الْعَبْدُ وَإِلاَّ فَقَدْ عَتَقَ مِنْهُ مَا عَتَقَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said, "If a man frees his share of a slave and has enough money to cover the full price of the slave justly evaluated for him, he must buy out his partners so that the slave is completely freed. If he doesn't have the money, he partially frees him. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1467
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ، وَعَنْ غَيْرِ، وَاحِدٍ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الْبَصْرِيِّ، وَعَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِيرِينَ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، فِي زَمَانِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَعْتَقَ عَبِيدًا لَهُ سِتَّةً عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ فَأَسْهَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَيْنَهُمْ فَأَعْتَقَ ثُلُثَ تِلْكَ الْعَبِيدِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَبَلَغَنِي أَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِذَلِكَ الرَّجُلِ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُمْ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Yahya ibn Said and somebody else fromal-Hasan ibn Abi al-Hasan al-Basri and from Muhammad ibn Sirin that aman in the time of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him andgrant him peace, freed six of his slaves while he was dying. TheMessenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, drew lotsbetween them and freed a third of those slaves. Malik addedthat he had heard that the man did not have any property other thanthem. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1468
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 3


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ رَبِيعَةَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، فِي إِمَارَةِ أَبَانَ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ أَعْتَقَ رَقِيقًا لَهُ كُلَّهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ مَالٌ غَيْرُهُمْ فَأَمَرَ أَبَانُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ بِتِلْكَ الرَّقِيقِ فَقُسِمَتْ أَثْلاَثًا ثُمَّ أَسْهَمَ عَلَى أَيِّهِمْ يَخْرُجُ سَهْمُ الْمَيِّتِ فَيَعْتِقُونَ فَوَقَعَ السَّهْمُ عَلَى أَحَدِ الأَثْلاَثِ فَعَتَقَ الثُّلُثُ الَّذِي وَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ السَّهْمُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Rabia ibn Abi Abd ar-Rahman that a manin the time of Aban ibn Uthman's amirate freed all of his slaves anddid not have other property than them. Aban ibn Uthman took charge ofthe slaves and they were divided into three groups. Then he drew lotson the basis that which ever group drew the dead man's arrow would befree. The arrow fell to one of the thirds, and that third was freed. Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1469
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 4


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَهُ يَقُولُ مَضَتِ السُّنَّةُ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا عَتَقَ تَبِعَهُ مَالُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِمَّا يُبَيِّنُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا عَتَقَ تَبِعَهُ مَالُهُ أَنَّ الْمُكَاتَبَ إِذَا كُوتِبَ تَبِعَهُ مَالُهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَشْتَرِطْهُ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ عَقْدَ الْكِتَابَةِ هُوَ عَقْدُ الْوَلاَءِ إِذَا تَمَّ ذَلِكَ وَلَيْسَ مَالُ الْعَبْدِ وَالْمُكَاتَبِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ مَا كَانَ لَهُمَا مِنْ وَلَدٍ إِنَّمَا أَوْلاَدُهُمَا بِمَنْزِلَةِ رِقَابِهِمَا لَيْسُوا بِمَنْزِلَةِ أَمْوَالِهِمَا لأَنَّ السُّنَّةَ الَّتِي لاَ اخْتِلاَفَ فِيهَا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا عَتَقَ تَبِعَهُ مَالُهُ وَلَمْ يَتْبَعْهُ وَلَدُهُ وَأَنَّ الْمُكَاتَبَ إِذَا كُوتِبَ تَبِعَهُ مَالُهُ وَلَمْ يَتْبَعْهُ وَلَدُهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِمَّا يُبَيِّنُ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ وَالْمُكَاتَبَ إِذَا أَفْلَسَا أُخِذَتْ أَمْوَالُهُمَا وَأُمَّهَاتُ أَوْلاَدِهِمَا وَلَمْ تُؤْخَذْ أَوْلاَدُهُمَا لأَنَّهُمْ لَيْسُوا بِأَمْوَالٍ لَهُمَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِمَّا يُبَيِّنُ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا بِيعَ وَاشْتَرَطَ الَّذِي ابْتَاعَهُ مَالَهُ لَمْ يَدْخُلْ وَلَدُهُ فِي مَالِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَمِمَّا يُبَيِّنُ ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا أَنَّ الْعَبْدَ إِذَا جَرَحَ أُخِذَ هُوَ وَمَالُهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْخَذْ وَلَدُهُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he heard Ibn Shihab say, "The precedentof the sunna is that when a slave is freed, his property follows him." Malik said, "One thing which makes clear that the property ofa slave follows him when he is freed is that when the contract(mukatab) is written for his freedom, his property follows him even ifhe did not stipulate it. That is because the bond of kitaba is thebond of wala' when it is complete. The property of a slave and amukatab is not treated in the same way as any children they may have.Their children are only treated in the same way as their own slaves,not in the same way as their property. This is because the sunna, inwhich there is no dispute, is that when a slave is freed, his propertyfollows him and his children do not follow him, and when a mukatabwrites the contract for his freedom, his property follows him and hischildren do not follow him." Malik said, "One thing whichmakes that clear is that when a slave or a mukatab are bankrupt, theirproperty is taken but the mothers of their children and their childrenare not taken because they are not their property." Maliksaid, "Another thing which makes it clear is that when a slave is soldand the person who buys him stipulates the inclusions of his property,his children are not included in his property." Malik said,"Another thing which makes it clear is that when a slave does injuresome one, he and his property are taken, and his children are nottaken." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1470
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 5


حَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، قَالَ أَيُّمَا وَلِيدَةٍ وَلَدَتْ مِنْ سَيِّدِهَا فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَبِيعُهَا وَلاَ يَهَبُهَا وَلاَ يُوَرِّثُهَا وَهُوَ يَسْتَمْتِعُ بِهَا فَإِذَا مَاتَ فَهِيَ حُرَّةٌ ‏.‏

Malik related to me from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that Umaribn al-Khattab said, "If a slave-girl gives birth to a child by hermaster, he must not sell her, give her away, or bequeath her. Heenjoys her and when he dies she is free ." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1471
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 6


وَحَدَّثَنِي مَالِكٌ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، أَتَتْهُ وَلِيدَةٌ قَدْ ضَرَبَهَا سَيِّدُهَا بِنَارٍ أَوْ أَصَابَهَا بِهَا فَأَعْتَقَهَا ‏.‏ قَالَ مَالِكٌ الأَمْرُ الْمُجْتَمَعُ عَلَيْهِ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ لاَ تَجُوزُ عَتَاقَةُ رَجُلٍ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ يُحِيطُ بِمَالِهِ وَأَنَّهُ لاَ تَجُوزُ عَتَاقَةُ الْغُلاَمِ حَتَّى يَحْتَلِمَ أَوْ يَبْلُغَ مَبْلَغَ الْمُحْتَلِمِ وَأَنَّهُ لاَ تَجُوزُ عَتَاقَةُ الْمُوَلَّى عَلَيْهِ فِي مَالِهِ وَإِنْ بَلَغَ الْحُلُمَ حَتَّى يَلِيَ مَالَهُ ‏.‏

Malik related to me that he had heard that a slave-girl came toUmar ibn al-Khattab (who had been beaten by her master with a red hotiron) and he set her free. Malik said, "The generally agreed-on way of doing things among us is that a man is not permitted to befreed while he has a debt against him which exceeds his property. Aboy is not allowed to be set free until he has reached puberty. Theyoung person whose affairs are managed cannot set free in hisproperty, even when he reaches puberty, until he manages hisproperty." Translation Not Available

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Book reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 1472
Web reference: Muwatta Imam Malik Book 38 Hadith no 7



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